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7 th W* 

M. L. 




3 1 

833 02281 9780 






October 1, 1907, to October 1, 1908 

With Accompanying Letters of Capt. Isaac Guion 


Nashville, Tenn. : 
Press of Brandon Printing Company 






To the Legislature of the State of Mississippi: 

Gentlemen: — We have the honor to submit herewith the 
'Seventh and Eighth Annual Reports of the Director of the 
Department of Archives and History for the biennial period, 
October 1, 1907, to September 30, 1909. 

In our last letter of transmittal we gave the highest possible 
endorsement of the historical work of the State, under the 
direction of Dr. Dunbar Rowland., and urged a liberal increase 
of appropriations and salaries. The Legislature granted an 
increased maintenance fund, but there was no increase in 

The work of the Historical Department has been so useful, 
and its achievements so great, that we urge you to make an 
annual appropriation of $7,500.00 a year for maintenance, and 
fix the salary of the Director at $3,500.00 per year. 

We feel that our requests are reasonable and modest in view 
of the fact that other States appropriate $25,000.00 a year for 
the support of historical undertakings and $5,000.00 a year as 
the salary of the directors of the work. 

Yours very respectfully, 
R. W. Jones, 
Edward Mayes, 
J. R. Preston, 
R. H. Thompson, 
Franklin L. Riley, 
J. M. White, 
G. H. Brunson, 
Trustees Department of Archives and History. 

Jackson, Miss., Nov. 9, 1909. 

(3) -y 




Department of Archives and History, 

Jackson, Miss., October 1, 190S. 

To Bishop diaries B. Galloway, Dr. R. W. Jones, Dr. Edward 
Mayes, Prof. J. R. Preston, Dr. Franklin L. Riley, Hon. R. H. 
Thompson, Pro]. J . M. White and Prof. G. H. Branson, Trus- 
tees of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History: 
Gentlemen: — I have the honor to submit my administrative 

and financial report as Director of the Mississippi Department 

of Archives and History for the fiscal year ending September 30, 


Death of General Stephen D. Lee. 

Before taking up the work of the Historical Department for 
the past year, it becomes my sad duty to report the death of 
General Stephen D. Lee, the beloved President of the Board of 
Trustees, who died at Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 28, 190S. 

When the Mississippi Department of Archives and History 
was organized General Lee was elected President of the Board 
of Trustees, and his service continued without interruption 
until his death. Those of you who took part in that first meet- 
ing will recall his zeal and earnestness when he assumed the 
duties of the position to which he had been elected. He seemed 
deeply impressed from the first that the creation of the Historical 
Department offered an opportunity for work of the highest ;•■ 
ble value to the State. We all know how unselfishly lie gave 
himself to the labor of promoting its best interests, and have 
observed the pride with which he watched its progress. His 
interest in history preservation was extremely active, and he 
never lost an opportunity of assisting in any movement for the 
advancement of such work, not only in his own State, but 


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in 2013 


throughout the entire country. He was naturally very much 
interested in Confederate military history; and the collection of 
materials dealing with that subject, which was begun by the 
Mississippi Historical Department, was an undertaking of 
supreme importance to him. He did much to encourage the 
work when it seemed almost impossible of accomplishment. 
During the six years of its progress he gave it his active aid, and 
in many instances furnished the data used in its compilation. 
It is indeed fortunate that the Historical Department has been 
from its beginning strengthened by his aid and influence. 

The writer acknowledges a personal as well as an official 
indebtedness to General Lee. It was my good fortune to begin 
my college life under his influence and guidance, and it was at 
his suggestion that I undertook the duties of this work. His 
interest in its welfare was more than an official interest for the 
reason that it had in it the elements of a pure and stable friend- 
ship. It is unnecessary to dwell upon the effect of such an 
interest in launching a new undertaking. The sympathy and 
encouragement which he always gave in times of trial, as well as 
the praise he freely bestowed when something worthy was 
accomplished, are inspiring memories of his association with 
the historical work of the State. 

Meeting of Board of Trustees. 

The Board of Trustees of the Mississippi Department of Ar- 
chives and History held its sixth annual meeting in the Hall of 
History, Friday, November 1, 1907, with the following members 
present: General Stephen I). Lee, president, presiding; Dr. 
Edward Mayes, Prof. J. R. Preston, Bishop Charles B. Galloway 
Dr. R. W. Jones, Prof. J. M'. White and Dr. Franklin L. Riley. 

Before taking up the regular order of business, General Lee spoke 
of the position of Mississippi in the historical work of the country, 
of the activities of the Department since its establishment in 
1002, of its opportunities for usefulness, and of the pleasure 
which he had derived from his services as president of the govern- 
ing board. 

On the motion of Dr. Mayes, the annual administrative and 
financial report of the Director was submitted, discussed, ap- 

proved and ordered printed in an edition of 1,000 copies. Dr. 
R. W. Jones submitted a statement to the legislature dealing 
with the work of the Department for the past six years and 
urging liberal appropriations for its support, On motion of 
Bishop Galloway, the statement prepared by Dr. Jones was 
adopted as the official message of the Board to the legislature. 

The Director submitted for the consideration of the Board 
rules governing the placing of portraits and paintings in the 
Mississippi State Hall of Fame, as follows: 

1. There shall be appointed from the membership of the 
Board of Trustees of the Department of Archives and History, 
by the President of said Board, a portrait committee to consist 
of five members, two of whonrshall be the President of xhe Board 
of Trustees and the Director of the said Department. This 
committee shall serve for six years, and shall have exclusive 
jurisdiction in all matters concerning the placing of portraits in 
the Mississippi Hall of Fame. 

2. That only portraits in oil, of the distinguished men of Mis- 
sissippi; paintings illustrating the life and history cf the State, or 
portraits and paintings presented by the citizens of the State, or 
former citizens being in other States, shall be accepted by the 
portrait committee. 

3. That portraits shall be received only when there has been a 
written invitation from the portrait committee, expressing the 
wish that the portrait of the individual named in the invitation 
be placed in the State's Hall of Fame. 

4. That it shall be necessary before a portrait is placed in the 
Hall of Fame that it shall receive the approval of all members 
of the portrait committee. 

5. That where portraits are purchased by the Department of 
Archives and History, the citizens to be honored shall be selected 
by the unanimous vote of the portrait committee before the. 
order is placed. 

After a general discussion the rules were adopted as submitted, 
and the President appointed, in addition to the ex-orticio mem- 
bers of the portrait committee, Bishop Galloway, Dr. Mayes and 
Dr. Riley. 

The election of a Director of the Department, for a term of six 

8 " 

years, being in order, Dr. Riley, having placed the present incum- 
bent in nomination, was instructed to cast the unanimous vote 
of the Board for him for the term of six years, beginning March 
15, 1908. 

The Board then proceeded to the election of three Trustees of 
the Department for terms of six years, beginning January 1, 1908. 
Bishop Galloway placed Dr. R. W. Jones in nomination for 
re-election and he was unanimously chosen for another term. 
Prof. Preston nominated Prof. G. H. Brunson as his own suc- 
cessor and he was elected unanimously. For the third place 
Dr. Riley nominated Chancellor A. A. Kincannon, Prof. White 
named Prof. Dabney Lipscomb, and Prof. Preston, Hon. R. H. 
Thompson, The first ballot resulted in three votes for P.. H. 
Thompson, three for Dabney Lipscomb, and one for A. A. Kin- 
cannon. There being no election, a second ballot was taken, 
which resulted in the election of R. H. Thompson by a vote of 
four to three. 

The President then announced the appointment of Bishop 
Galloway, Dr. Mayes and Prof. Preston as the executive com- 
mittee for a term of two years, beginning January 1, 1908. On 
motion of Prof. White, the President appointed Bishop Galloway, 
Judge Thompson, Dr. Jones and Prof. Preston as a committee 
on legislation. 

After a general discussion of the historical interests of the 
State, the Board adjourned to meet during the first week in 
November, 1908. 

Stephen D. Lee, 
Dunbar Rowland, President. 



The bill for the maintenance of the Department for 1 90S- 1909 
was introduced in the Senate by Hon. John L. Hebron, the able 
and progressive member from the Twenty-ninth District, soon 
after the beginning uf th< January session, and was referred to 
the Finance Committee. At the hearing before the committee 
the needs of the Department were intelligently and ably pre- 
sented by Dr. R. W. Jones. Prof. j. K. Preston and ]\K\[.y R. H. 
Thompson, representing the Board of Trustees. Alter the pas- 


sage of the bill by the Senate, the Director received valuable 
assistance from Bishop Charles B. Galloway and Judge R. H. 
Thompson in securing a favorable report from the House Com- 
mittee on Appropriations. The bill in its final form carries an 
appropriation for the biennial period of 613,600.00, an increase 
of $1,800.00 over the appropriation for 190(3-07. This increase 
is largely due to the well-directed aid of the Legislative Com- 
mittee representing this Board. 

The legislature also provided for the publication every year 
of a volume devoted to the documentary history of the State; 
heretofore this publication has been issued every two years. 
Under the plan for publications, as now arranged, a regular 
annual series of volumes will be issued. 

Confirmation of Trustees. 

Under the provisions of Chapter 33, Section 1G34, Code of 
1906, the names of newly-elected trustees must be submitted to 
the Senate for confirmation. In complying with the terms of 
the statute, the following communications were sent and received: 

Department of Archives axd History. 
Jackson, Miss., January 20, l'JOS. 

To the Senate of the State of Mississippi: 

I have the honor to inform the Senate that at a meeting of the Board 
of Trustees of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History, held 
November 1, 1007, Dr. R. W. Jones, Prof. G. H. Brunson and Judge 
R. H. Thompson were elected Trustees of said Department, for a term 
of six years, beginning January 1, 190S. As provided by law, the names 
of the Trustees-elect are submitted to the Senate for confirmation. 

Yours, very respectfully, 

Dunbar Rowland, 


The action of the Senate is reported in the following communi- 
cation : 

Senate Chamber, 
Jackson, Miss., February 4, L908. 

Hon. Dunbar Rowland, Secretary of Board of Trustees, Department 
of Archives and History of the State of Mississippi: 
Dear Sir: — This is to advise you that, the Senate did, on January 27 


1908, confirm the election of Dr. R. W. Jones, judge R. H. Thompson 
and Prof. G. H. Brunson as Trustees of the Mississippi Department of 
Archives and History for a term of six years, beginning January 1, 1908. 


Frank Roeerson, 


Transcripts of French Archives. 

The largest classified collection of archives concerning Mis- 
sissippi history in European repositories is preserved in the Minis- 
try of the Colonies in Paris. In the last annual report it was 
stated that all the necessary preliminaries for copying these 
very valuable archives had been arranged. The work of tran- 
scription was begun in October, 1907, and is now proceeding in a 
very satisfactory manner; seven large bound volumes have been 
received. A complete calendar of the documents which are 
being copied appears as an appendix to the Fifth Annual Report. 
The transcripts now on file cover the period 1678-171 6 from 
"Correspondence Generale-Louisiane." It will require about 
two years to complete the collection which has been ordered 
by the Department. 

Transcripts of English Archives. 

The transcription of English Archives relating to Mississippi 
histor> r has been going on for the past two years, and the volumes 
contracted for are completed and constitute a part of the official 
records of the Department. The entire series consists of sixteen 
volumes, eight of which have been received since the last report. 
These are designated and numbered as follows: 

America and West Indies. 


2.5'J. 1771-72. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Governor Chester. 

260. 1772-73. Original pa, i rs. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Governor Chester. 

201. 1773-74. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of State from Governor Chester. 

202. 1774-70. Original pipers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of Slate from Governor Chester. 


263. 1776-77. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of State from Governor Chester. 

264. 1777-7S. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of State from Governor Chester. 

265. 177S-S0. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of State from Governor Chester. 

266. 17S0-S1. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of State from Governor Chester. 

In addition to the above, the Department has arranged for 
an abstract of land grants issued under the English dominion 
in what is now the State of Mississippi. 

Transcripts of Spanish Archives. 

Ten volumes of Spanish transcripts have been received since 
the last report, and the collection concerning the Spanish domin- 
ion now consists of thirteen volumes. These documents deal 
with events beginning with the occupation of West Florida by 
Galvez and ending with the capture of Pensacola by Andrew- 
Jackson. They tell the story of Spanish efforts to alienate the 

American settlements west of the Alleghanies from the United 

States and throw much light upon the puzzling intrigues of Burr 

and Wilkinson. The work of transcribing selected Spanish 
documents will, perhaps, be limited to five additional volumes. 
The collection of archives from which the Mississippi transcripts 
are being made is large, but the greater portion deals with events 
in Louisiana. It may be reasonably supposed that eighteen 
volumes will give the State of Mississippi a fairly complete docu- 
mentary history of the Spanish occupation. 

Meeting of the American Historical Association. 

The annual meeting of the American Historical Association 
was held December 27-31 at Madison, Wis., under the auspices 
of the University of Wisconsin. One of the regular features of 
the meetings of the Association is a conference of Historical 
Societies and Departments for the discussion of subjects of spe- 
cial interest. These conferences have created a demand for 
co-operation on the part of historical agencies having interests 
in common; and the subject for discussion at the .Madison meet- 


ing was "The Co-operation of State Historical Societies and 
.Departments in the Gathering of Material in Foreign Archives." 
In the Fifth Annual Report of this Department it was pointed 
out that French and Spanish archives were of special interest 
to the entire Mississippi Valley, and that transcripts of such 
essential historical materials should be collected by the States 
which were interested in them. This may have led to the sub- 
ject being taken up by the program committee of the conference. 
At any rate, the matter was taken up by the committee and 
the" writer was invited to propose a plan by which the historical, 
agencies of the Mississippi Valley could co-operate in securing 
historical materials in Europe. The discussion resulted in the 
appointment of a committee of seven to formulate a plan of 
co-operation, and report to the Richmond meeting of the Asso- 
ciation to be held in December, 190S. The chairmanship of 
the committee was assigned to this Department and a meeting 
was called to be held in Washington, April 16, 190S. 

Visit to Washington. 

The Committee of Seven appointed at Madison for the purpose 
of formulating a plan for the co-operation of historical agencies 
in securing materials, met with the Department of Historical 
Research of the Carnegie Institution, April 16, 190S, the follow- 
ing members being present: J. F. Jameson. Worthington C. Ford, 
R. G. Thwaites, E. B. Greene, B. F. Shambaugh and Dunbar 
Rowland. The committee held two sessions, and after thorough 
consideration decided that the most promising field for co-opera- 
tion was the Mississippi Valley, including the States whose terri- 
tory was originally a part of the Louisiana Purchase. It was 
decided that these States had a common interest in the French 
archives, and a plan was suggested by which a calendar of the 
records in the historical collections of France could be prepared 
and published, not only for the benefit of the interested States, 
but for the use of the enure country. It is very probable that 
the plan will be adopted, as seven historical agencies have indi- 
cated a willingness to join in the movement. 


Classification of Official Archives. 

A systematic plan of archive classification has been worked 
out during the past year. A tentative arrangement has been in 
use for several years with fairly good results, but the classifica- 
tion now under way is intended to be final. A chronological 
arrangement of documents has been adopted. That is, begin- 
ning with the Sargent administration, all papers originating in 
the Territorial period have been separated from the general 
collection and designated as Mississippi Territorial Archives, 
179S-1S17. Under that general heading, the archives of the 
Territorial period have been arranged in chronological order by 
administrations and by departments. By that classification, 
the papers of the executive department are placed together in 
chronological order, those of the legislative departments are 
arranged in the same way, and those of the judicial department- 
are treated in a similar manner. The same scheme has been 
carried out in classifying the archives of the Territorial auditor 
and treasurer. Take, for example, the archives of the adminis- 
tration of Winthrop Sargent, the papers originating in it are 
classified as follows: 

Archives of Sargent's Administration, 1798-1801. 

1. Writings of the Governor. 

2. Writings to the Governor. 

3. Laws enacted by the Governor and judges, laws enacted by the 
General Assembly, general legislative papers. 

4. Archives of the Judicial Department. 

5. Archives of the Territorial Treasurer. 

6. Archives of the Territorial Auditor. 

All the archives of the Territorial period have been arm: 
in conformity to this plan of classification; each document has 
been unfolded and pressed out and is easily accessible. Jackets 
of postal card-board have been made to protect the papers until 
they can be bound in permanent form. These valuable his- 
torical materials are listed as follows: 

Mississippi Territorial Archives, 1798-1817. 


No. 1. Administration of Governor Winthrop Sargent, May, 179S- 
May, 1S01; also of Acting Governor [ohn Steele May-Xovember, 


No. 2. Administration of William Charles Cole Claiborne, May, 1S01- 
March, 1805; also, Correspondence with Spanish Officers, 1S0G. 

No. 3. Papers relating to the founding of Jefferson College, 1S03-1805, 
in the administration of Governor Claiborne. 

No. 4. Administration of Acting Governor Cato West, during absence 
of Governor Claiborne in 1S03-1S04-1S05. 

No. 5. Administration of Governor Robert Williams, 1S05-1809. 
Documents, January 22, 1805, to January S, 1807. 

No. 6. Administration of Acting Governor Cowles Mead, May 31, 
1806, to January 20, 1807 (includes the Burr papers). 

No. 7. Administration of Governor Robert Williams, 1S05-1809. 
Documents. February 2, 1807, to December 14, 1807; also, Contingent' 
Fund Account, 1805-1807. 

No. 8. Administration of Governor Robert Williams, 1805-1S09. 
Documents, March 1, 1S08, to September 5, 1809; also, Resignations 
and Commissions, 1805-1 SOS. 

No. 9. Administration of Governor David Holmes, 1809-1 S17. Docu- 
ments from August 31, 1800, to March 1, 1811. 

No. 10. Administration of Governor David Holmes, 1S09-1S17. Docu- 
ments from March 2. 1811, to December 23. 1812. 

No. 11. Administration of Governor David Holmes, 1S09-1S17. Gen- 
eral Orders, Messages and Correspondence relating to the War of 1S12- 

No. 12. Administration of Governor David Holmes, 1809-1S17. Orders, 
Messages and Reports on Creek War of 1813. Correspondence between 
Governor Holmes and Judge Touimin, 1S10-1S16. 

No. 13. Administration of Governor David Holmes, 1809-1 SI 7. Army 
Papers: Returns of Regiments, 1S12-1S14; Receipts for Arms and Sup- 
plies, 1S12-1S16; Papers concerning the Alien Enemy Law of 1812. 

No. 14. Administration of Governor David Holmes, 1S09-1S17. Docu- 
ments from January G, 1813, to January 3, 1814. 

No. 15. Administration of Governor David Holmes, 1809-1S17. Docu- 
ments from January 8, 1814, to November IS, 1814. Affidavits for secur- 
ing passports, 1S11-1S14. 

No. 16. Administration of Governor David Holmes, 1S09-1S17. Docu- 
ments from November 23, 1S14, to July 4, 1S10. 

No. 17. Administration of Governor David Holmes, 1S09-1S17. Docu- 
ments from July 18, 1810, to December 6, 1810. 

No. 18. Administrati i :■• ■ rnor David Holmes, 1S09-1S17. Docu- 
ments from December V. »10, to O :1 ■ '■• r 0, 1817. 

No. 19. Administration of Governor-David Holmes, 1S09-.1S17. Resig- 
nations and Commission • ■ ' ■ i M 1800 1S13. 

No. 20. Administration of Gov rn r David Holmes, 1S09-1S17. Resig- 
nations and Commissions, Civil and Military, 1814 to August 13, 1817. 
Receipts for Laws, 1S14-1S13. 

No. 21. Bonds: Tax Collectors', various dates, 1S08 to 1814; Sheriffs', 
various dates, 1800 to IS! 7: Indian Traders', various dates, 1802 to 


1817; Surveyors', for years 1S09, 1810; also, Chain-carriers' Oaths, 1809, 

No. 22. Enumeration of Early Censuses, 1805, 1810, 1816. 

No. 23. Reports of the Territorial Treasurer and Auditor's Statements, 
1802 to 1816. Reports of County Clerks to Treasurer. 

No. 24. Statements and Vouchers of Auditor's Office, 1S00 to 1S08. 

No. 25. Statements and Vouchers of Auditor's Office, 1809 to 1811. 

No. 20. Statements and Vouchers of Auditor's Office, 1812, 1813. 

No. 27. Statements and Vouchers of Auditor's Office, 1S14, 1S15. 

No. 2S. Statements and Vouchers of Auditor's Office, 1S15-1817. 

No. 29. Auditor's Records. Fines and Forfeitures, 1S02 to 1815. 

No. 30. Auditor's Records. Sheriffs' Tax Returns, 1S05 to 1S09. 
Executions, 1S0S. 

No. 31. Auditor's Records. Insolvencies in Ten Counties, 1810-1817. 

No. 32. Auditor's Records. Tax Lists, 1802, 1S03, 1804, 1S10. Re- 
turns of Taxable Property (individual), 1808. 

No. 33. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls — 1805. 

No. 34. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls — 1S07. 

No. 35. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls — 1S10. 

No. 36. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls — 1S11. 

No. 37. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls— 1812. 

No. 38. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls— 1 813. 

No. 39. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls — 1814. 

No. 40. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls — 1815. 

No. 41. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls — 1816. 

No. 42. Real and Personal Assessment Rolls — 1817. 


No. 43. Returns of Elections for Congressional Delegates, 1808-1816. 
Assembly and Other Elections, 1806-1817. 

No. 44. Acts of the First General Assembly, signed January-May. 1S02. 

No. 45. Acts of the Second General Assembly, January, February, 1803. 

No. 46. Acts of the Third General Assembly, January-March, 1805. 

No. 47. Acts of the Fourth General Assembly, January, February, 1S07. 

No. 48. Acts of the Fourth General Assembly, February. March, 1808. 

No. 49. Acts of the Filth General Assembly, February, March, 1S09, 
and 'Acts of the Sixth General Assembly, December, 1809. 

No. 50. Acts of the Sixth General Assembly, November. Decei 

No. 51. Acts of the Seventh General Assemblv, November, December, 

No. 52. Acts of the Eighth General Assemblv, Januarv, Decei 

No. 53. Acts of the Ninth General Assembly, November, December, 



No. 54. Acts of the Ninth General Assembly, November, December, 


No. 55. Bills (Original and Engrossed) introduced in First and Second 
General Assemblies, 1802, 1S03. 

No. 5G. Bills (Original and Engrossed) in Second and Third Assemblies, 
1S03, 1804. 

No. 57. Bills (Original and Engrossed) in Third General Assembly, 

No. 5S. Bills (O . lginal and Engrossed) in Fourth and Fifth Assemblies, 
1806, 1807, 1808. 

No. 59. Bills (Original and Engrossed) in Sixth and Seventh Assem- 
blies, 1809, 1810. 

No. GO. Bills (Original and Engrossed) in Seventh and Eighth Assem- 
blies, 1811-1814. 

No. 61. Bills (Original and Engrossed) in Eighth General Assembly, 

No. 62. Bills (Original and Engrossed) in Ninth General Assembly, 

No. 63. Bills (Original and Engrossed) in Ninth General Assembly, 

No. 64. Bills (Original and Engrossed) in Ninth General Assembly, 

No. 65. Parts of House Journals, various dates. 

No. 66. Notes on Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of 1817. 

No. 67. Petitions to the General Assembly, 1S00-1S04. 

No. 68. Petitions to the General Assembly, 1805-1809. 

No. 69. Petitions to the General Assembly, 1S10-1S16. 

No. 70. Assembly Papers with Regard to the Public Printing, 1S00- 

No. 71. Assembly Papers — Communications, Reports, etc., 1S01-1815. 

No. 72. Assembly Papers — Memorials to Congress, Credentials, etc., 
1804-1 SI 6. 

No. 73. Assembly Papers, without dates. 

No. 74. Petitions to the Assembly, without dates. 

Nos. 75 to S2. Bills Introduced, bearing no date. 

No. 83. Papers from Adams County, 179S-1808. 

No. 84. Judicial Department Papers, of various kinds and dates. 

No. 85. Papers Relating to Lands in Territory of Orleans. 

Official and Statistical Register of 1908. 

The publication of the Official and Statistical Register every 
four years has, perhaps, been the means of popularizing the 
Department at home and abroad to a greater extent than any 
other single activity. It reaches the homes and schools of the 
State, and appeals to the feeling of local pride which is in the 
heart of every good citizen. It is also distributed to libraries 


and historians, and gives that concrete knowledge of the State, 
in ready reference form, which is so necessary to the student of 
national affairs. A knowledge of the States is necessary for a 
proper understanding of national history, and it is the duty of 
the State to supply it. This duty the Department seeks to ful- 
fill by the publication and distribution of the Official and Statis- 
tical Register. 

The first volume of this publication was issued in 1004 in an 
edition of one thousand copies. The law of 1906 increased the 
number of copies to be published in 190S to three thousand. 
The distribution of the Register has been in progress since August 
15, and about fourteen hundred copies have been sent out. It 
has been placed in one hundred libraries and historical societies, 
including such great book repositories as the Library of Congress, 
the British Museum and the Bibliotheque Xationale, Paris. One 
thousand copies have been distributed through the members of 
the legislature to citizens of the State, each member distributing 
five volumes. The remaining three hundred copies of the first 
distribution were sent to legislators, members of the Mississippi 
Historical Society, high school libraries, students, historians, 
and historical publications. Historians to whom the Register 
was sent have been very kind in their expressions of approval. 

Publication of Documentary History. 

The legislature provided for the publication of an annual 
volume devoted to the documentary history of Mississippi, 
twelve hundred dollars being appropriated for that purpose. 
This will enable the Department to publish the valuable source 
materials which have been collected from the archives of France. 
England and Spain. 

The documentary history of the English Dominion. 1763-17S1 . 
is now complete in transcript form and a volume of the series, 
to be designated "Mississippi Provincial Archives, English 
Dominion, 1763-17GS," is now in course of preparation. 

Writings and Speeches oj Jefferson Davis. 

The collection and publication of tin- writings and speeches 
of JeiTerson Da\ is is a matter of national importance. The time 


has arrived when such an undertaking will be well received in 
every State in the Union. The collection of the material for 
such a publication will not be easy and it will take time to accom- 
plish it. But in the face of all difficulties this Department has 
taken upon itself the duty of collecting, preserving and publishing 
the writings and speeches of the President of the Southern Con- 

The following communications contain the announcement of 
this important undertaking : 

Department of Archives and History' 
Jackson, Miss., May 26, 1908. 

My Dear Mr. Editor: I beg leave to call to your attention the enclosed 
circular letter, which explains an historical undertaking being inaugurated 
by the Mississippi Department of Archives and History, which 1 trust will 
call forth your interest and approval. May I ask you to give it publicity 
in your publication on June 3, 190S — the one hundredth anniversary of 
the birth of Jefferson Davis? The demand for the collection and publi- 
cation of the writings and speeches of Mr. Davis has become so insistent 
among historians that the Mississippi Department of Archives and History 
has been prompted to collect and publish them. 

The Department will be very grateful for the publication of its appeal, 
for any editorial comment which you may make, and for copies of the 
issue containing them. 

Thanking you for the highly valued co-operation which you may extend 
to a worthy undertaking, I am, Yours very truly, 

Dunbar Rowland, 
Director Mississippi Department of Archives and History. 

To the Public: 

The Mississippi Department of Archives and History has formulated 
a plan for the collection and -publication of the writings and speeches of 
Jefferson Davis. In order that the undertaking may be successful, it 
will be necessary to secure the co-operation, not only of the historical 
societies and patriotic organizations which have original Davis letters, 
but also of individuals who have preserved them. Up to this time there 
has been no systematic effort made for the collection in ope repository 
of the letters and speeches of Mr. Davis. These valuable historical 
materials that are still in private hands, will, in course of time, disappear 
or be destroyed if they are not collected and preserved in some central 

That the duty of preserving and publishing these records rests upon 
the Mississippi Department of Archives and History is very evident; an 1 


in response to the obligation, the Department issues this appeal for co- 
operation on the part of those who are interested in the preservation of 
historical materials, not only in the South, but in every part of the United 

The papers of Mr. Davis are not preserved alone in the southern States; 
while it is doubtless true that the greater part of them are in the South, 
it is well known that there are valuable collections in other parts of the 

The true story of the Southern Confederacy lies in the letters, speeches 
and State papers of its leaders; and its best justification will come after 
such historical materials have been made accessible to the truth-loving 
historian of the future. 

The private and public papers of such Southern leaders as Calhoun, 
Davis and Lee will reveal, as nothing else can, the principles for which 
they contended, and give to posterity the true estimate of their lives 
and deeds. 

In order that those who are interested may know the kind of papers 
wanted, it may be well to state that all writings of Mr. Davis, public or 
private, official or unofficial, in manuscript or printed form, are worthy 
of preservation and are desired. In other words, any paper in his hand- 
writing or signed by him, is of value. The papers which are apparently 
of the least value may give impressions which are of the greatest historical 
importance. It has been truly said that the account books kept by 
Washington and Jefferson have afforded to historians an insight into 
their habits and characteristics which could not have been obtained 
from the Declaration of Independence or the Farewell Address. It may 
be gathered from this illustration that the private papers of great men 
are by no means unimportant to the historian. 

The most valuable historical materials in the United States, relating 
to the American Revolution, are the original papers of such leaders as 
Washington, Franklin. Jefferson and Madison, which are preserved in 
the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. 

The most desirable form of historical material is the original document. 
It is often the case, however, that the owner of the original is unwilling 
to part with it. and an accurate copy is all that can be had. In gathering 
up the Davis writings and speeches, it is the intention of the Mississippi 
Department of Archives and History to make the largest possible collec- 
tion of originals that can be obtained. In the event that the original 
documents cannot be secured, copies, accurately made and certified, can 
be used to good advantage and will be gladly accepted; and when any 
expense is incurred, the amount expended will be returned. Where Davis 
collections are in the custody of historical societies or other patriotic, 
organizations, or where they are part of the National or State archives, 
permission to have copies made by persons designated by the officials 
in charge is requested. In the case of private collections, where the 
owners are unwilling to give up the original documents, but are willing 


to furnish, or allow copies to be made, it will be best to allow the original 
to accompany the copies for purposes of verification. 

The collection and publication of the writings and speeches of Mr. Davis 
should strongly appeal to the people of Mississippi among whom his life 
was spent; it should also have the active co-operation of every patriotic 
organization in the South, and it is confidently believed that such an 
undertaking will command the sympathy of searchers for the truth every- 
where. The Mississippi Department of Archives and History invites the 
co-operation of every historical agency in the United States which has 
Davis writings or speeches in its collections, and it solicits the active aid 
of those who have in their keeping the archives of the various Southern 
States in making a worthy undertaking a success. The Department 
appeals to Confederate Veterans, Sons of the Confederacy, Daughters of 
the Confederacy, Daughters of Confederate Veterans, and memorial and 
monumental associations throughout the country to give active aid and 
support to a movement which has for its motive the preservation of 

Correspondence should be directed to the Director of the Department 
of Archives and History. Jackson, Miss. 

With the belief that the collection and publication of such historical 
materials will redound to the honor of the Southern people, and add 
something of permanent value to the history of the whole country, I am, 

Yours respectfully, 

Dunbar Rowland, 
Director Mississippi Department of Archives and History. 

Jackson, Miss.. May 26, 1908. 

Since the inception of this enterprise very satisfactory pro- 
gress has been made. Wide publicity was given to it by the 
daily, weekly and monthly publications of the country, and the 
responses have been quite generous. 

Use of the Department's Collections. 

The accessibility of the archives of the Department has at- 
tracted the attention of students and investigators throughout 
the country, and many historians and economists conducting 
special lines of investigation, have worked over materials, in 
which they were interested during the past year. The freest 
access to documents is allowed to every properly accredited. 
student engaged in serious work. Investigators from the States 
of Wisconsin, Virginia, Illinois, California. Indiana and Okla- 
homa, and from Washington City, have visited the Department 
for purposes of investigation during the past year. 


Suggested Changes in Rules. 

The rules and regulations for the government of the Depart- 
ment were adopted by the Board of Trustees, March 15, 1902, 
and have been in operation since that time. Rule 2 reads as 
follows: "To carry out the purposes of the law creating the 
Department of Archives and History of the State, the Board of 
Trustees shall elect the following officers, to wit: a President, 
whose term of office shall be two years, and a Director of the 
Mississippi Department of Archives and History, whose term of 
office shall be six years. The President shall appoint an Execu- 
tive Committee of three members, whose term of office shall be 
two years." 

I suggest that the above ride be amended by adding after the 
words "a President whose term of office shall be two years," the 
following: — a Vice President, whose term of office shall be two 

Historical Portraits. 

The Department collection of historical portraits has had 
some valuable additions made to it since the last report. 

One of the most notable portraits presented is that of the late 
Senator James Z. George, which was donated by the George 
family, January 22, 190S. A public presentation of the portrait 
was made in the Hall of the House of Representatives, in the 
presence of a large audience. The presentation address was 
made by Senator John Sharp Williams and the speech of accept- 
ance was made by the Director of the Department. 

To Mrs. Lizzie George Henderson, the devoted daughter of 
Senator George, the Department is especially indebted for this 
magnificent contribution. 

The family of General M. P. Lowrey, on May 2S, presented an 
oil portrait of their distinguished father, and it has been placed 
with great pride in the coiled ion of historical" portraits. It is 
an excellent likeness, and the Department feels greatly indebted 
to the patriotic descendants of General Lowrey for the valuable 


Irwin Russell Memorial. 

In 1899 a movement was inaugurated by Prof. W. L. Weber, 
at that time professor of English Literature in Millsaps College, 
to erect a memorial to Invin Russell, the Mississippi poet. The 
suggestion was taken up by the Mississippi Teachers' Association 
and quite a nice sum was contributed through its efforts. Before 
the movement reached a successful conclusion, Prof. Weber was 
called to another State, and the undertaking was allowed to 
languish for some years. In 1904 the subject of the memorial 
was revived by the Association; and at the annual meeting of 
1907, held at Gulf port, a marble portrait bust of Irwin Russell was 
presented to the Department of Archives and History for pres- 
ervation in the Kali of Fame. The presentation was an inter- 
esting feature of the Gulfport meeting. Miss Mary Helms 
Mayo gave the history of the memorial movement, Prof. Weber 
made the presentation speech and the Director of the Depart- 
ment accepted the gift. A full account of the presentation may 
be found at pages 81-97 of the Proceedings of the Mississippi 
Teachers' Association of 1907. The Memorial was installed in 
the Hall of Fame during the meeting of the Association held in 
Jackson in May, 190S. 

4 Library. 

The collection of the printed sources of Mississippi history has, 
during the past year, progressed as rapidly as the resources of 
the Department would permit. To make a complete collection 
of such sources of information is very important, and to bring 
about the desired end a fixed appropriation for the p arena se of 
books, pamphlets and newspaper files should be made. In many 
cases valuable collections of such materials have been located, 
and might be purchased if the necessary funds were available. 
This want of funds may be relieved when the collection of Euro- 
pean transcripts has been completed; at any rate, it is hoped 
that in the future the De; rl ment will be enabled to prevent, by 
purchase, the sale of valuable Mississippi collections to buyers 
outside the State. 

Interest in the history of the Southern Stales is widespread, 
and there is an ever-increasing demand for sources of information. 


The large libraries throughout the country are seeking the mate- 
rial for the history of the South which is in private hands, and 
if these sources are not retained in local libraries they will go 

Flag of Tombigbee Volunteers. ' 

The Department's museum collections have increased so 
rapidly that very many interesting objects cannot be exhibited 
for want of room in the display cases. 

The most interesting donation made to the collection since the 
last report is the flag of the Tombigbee Volunteers, Co. K., Mis- 
sissippi Volunteers, Mexican War, which was presented July 27, 
1907, by the Mississippi Division, United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy. This historic flag was made by the ladies of Columbus, 
Miss., in 1846, and was presented to the Tombigbee Volunteers, 
commanded by Captain A. K. McClung on the departure of the 
company for Vicksburg, the rendezvous of the Mississippi troops 
called out for the war with Mexico. The flag was preserved by 
George W. Campbell, a member of the company, and was sold 
by his daughter, Mrs. Sarita Tamplet, of Brenham, Texas, to the 
Daughters of the Confederacy. It is claimed that the flag was 
designated as the flag of the regiment and was carried at the 
battle of Buena Vista, but the evidence in support of the claim 
is not of such a nature as to confirm it. 

Publication Plans. 

In future it will be the policy of the Department to publish in 
its annual reports a series of documents concerning the history 
of Mississippi Territory. In the Third Annual Report a collec- 
tion of documents dealing with the Burr Conspiracy was pub- 
lished with good results. The papers published in the reports 
will be carefully selected and edited, and the plan will enable 
the Department to place in the hands of students historical mate- 
rial of much value. 


The foregoing is a brief summary of the work of the past year. 
We have been most fortunate in the development of our plans. 


Each year has been an improvement on the one going before. 
The successes of the past have only made us more anxious to do 
better in the future. I beg to express my high appreciation of 
your aid in the advancement of the work under my charge. 
Most respectfully submitted, 

Dunbar Rowland, Director. 

HISTORY, 1907-1908. 

Salary of Director for 1907 $600 00 

Salary of Director for 1908 1,200 00 

Salary of Assistant for 1907 266 72 

ci.iu.iiy Ox. -uLboiOcciiiu iui xt/Oo . OOO *-0 

Maintenance for 1907 60S 22 

Maintenance for 190S 2,070 17 

Collecting Transcripts of Historical Archives for 1907 511 34 

Printing and Distributing Mississippi Archives for 1907 891 81 

Oil Portraits of Distinguished Deceased Governors for 1906 54 00 

Oil Portraits of Distinguished Deceased Governors for 1907 146 00 

Traveling Expenses of the Director for 1 907 .75 00 

Traveling Expenses of the Director for 1908 305 00 

Total Disbursements $7,261 54 

Disbursements for 1906-07 under Ch. 32, Laws 1900; for 1908, Ch. 33, 
Laws 190S. 



Introductory Note. 

The papers of Major Isaac Guion arc important sources of 
American history, as they relate to the extension of the authority 
of the United States over the Spanish military posts east of the Mis- 
sissippi river and the fixing of the country's southern boundary 
at 31°. Major Guion was the military and diplomatic agent of 
the United States in the final negotiations for the evacuation of 
the posts by the Spaniards, and the journal which he kept is 
now printed for the first time as an appendix to the foregoing 

The Guion collection of historical papers was secured and 
preserved by Kicholas Whitehurst, of Washington, Mississippi, 
who gave them to J. F. H. Claiborne, author of "Mississippi as a 
Province, Territory and State," who presented them to the State 
of Mississippi. The collection includes letters to and from Gen- 
eral Wilkinson, Secretary of War McHenry, Carondelet, Gayoso 
and Minor; military orders, rosters, pay-rolls, accounts, etc. 
The journal which follows is one of the most important docu- 
ments in the collection; it is in the handwriting of Captain Guion, 
and covers 133 manuscript pages. It is now on file in the .Mis- 
sissippi Department of Archives and History. 

Isaac Guion, 

Isaac Guion was a native of Westchester County, New York. 
of Huguenot descent. At an early age, August 1, 1775, he 
entered the colonial service, and was an ensign with Mont- 
gomery's troops at the assault on Quebec. December 31, 1775. 
Afterward he was a Second Lieutenant in Nicholson's New York 
Regiment, and in the Second Continental Artillery, Regim 
Paymaster and Captain-lieutenant, until the army was dis- 
banded, November 23, 17S3. His service as a soldier of the 
Revolution was marked by faithfulness and gallantry. He 
re-enlisted March 1, 1792, for the army in the Northwest, was 


made Captain March 5, and. assigned first to the Third Sublegion, 
and then to the Third Infantry in November, 179G. He com- 
manded a Company in Wayne's famous victory on the Maumee 
river. On May 20, 1797, Gen. James Wilkinson, the successor 
of Gen. Anthony Wayne, notified Captain Guion that he had 
selected him to take possession of the Spanish military posts 
east of the Mississippi river. He was directed to embark at Fort 
Washington (Cincinnati) May 26, in command of two companies, 
and proceed to Fort Massac, near the mouth of the Tennessee 
river, when he would be given more men and supplies by Capt. 
Zebulon Pike. Full instructions were given regarding the trip 
down the river from Fort Massac. He was directed to sail with 
the flag conspicuously displayed, notify any Spanish post of his 
approach and offer to exchange salute for salute, but stop for 
nothing but an official order or menace, in which case he was to 
deliver a protest and either return or take a position within the 
limits of the United States and defend it to the last extremity. 
At Chickasaw Bluffs he was ordered to stop for the purpose of 
distributing goods to the Chickasaws; then proceed to Walnut 
Hills and take possession if the Spaniards had evacuated the 
post, or demand possession if they had not gone. Leaving one 
company there, with a detachment of artillery, he was then to 
proceed to Natchez, where he would exercise diplomatic as well 
as military functions. The manner in which Captain Guion 
executed his orders is narrated in his journal, which is now pub- 
lished for the first time. Captain Guion was brigade inspector 
in the United States army November, 1799, to October 25, 1S01 ; 
was promoted to major February 15, 1801, and honorably dis- 
charged June 1, 1S02. He Was in complete control of affairs in 
the Mississippi Territory from December 6, 1797, until August (). 
1798, when Gov. Winthrop Sargent arrived and began the dis- 
charge of his duties as governor of the new Territory, after which 
he made his home near Natchez. In August, 1805, Major Guion 
was appointed brigade inspector of the militia of Mississippi 
Territory, by Gov. Robert Williams, to succeed' Col. William 
Scott, deceased. 

J. F. H. Claiborne wrote that Major Guion "was a singularly 
handsome man, with a military port and manner, very fascinating 
in conversation, familiar with ancient and modern languages, 


and with the literature of the age." As a citizen of Mississippi 
Territory he made his home near Halfway Hill, between Natchez 
and Washington, in the neighborhood of Benajah Osmun, an 
officer of the Revolution, who was with Montgomery at Quebec. 
When Major Guion was the only survivor of that heroic expedi- 
tion he was invited to New York and Quebec, with the Com- 
mission that found General Montgomery's remains, and reinterred 
them in Trinity Church yard. 

Major Guion died September 7, 1823. 



Pari of a Letter from Capi. Isaac Guion to Col. Dclassus, June, 


(To) avoid misconstruction, I have thought it proper to dis- 
patch Ensign William Scott of the army of the U. States the 
bearer of this letter to apprise you, sir, of my approach and the 
object of it. I hope the advance of the troops of the United 
States to this duty may, in point of time, meet the views of his 
Excellency The Baron De Carondolet as mentioned in your let- 
ter of the 18th of December 1796 to Lieutenant Taylor, and 
alluded to in your letter of the same date to Major General 
Wayne, as the water of the river Mississippi is now high — I 
hope also that the proximity of neighborhood of the troops of 
the two nations will tend to cement that friendship and good 
understanding so happily begun — I shall here wait with satis- 
faction your answer by Ensign Scott, whose return I hope will 
be promptly expedited — ■ With much respect, Sir, 

I have the honor to be 

Your most Obedient and very 
Humble Sen-ant — 
I. G. Capt. in the 
Ay. of the U. S. 
Chs. Dehault Delassus Esqr. 
Lieut. Colol. in his C. M. service [ 
Or Officer Commg. the , 

Post of New Madrid. 

1 The first page of the journal is missing. It, will bo noted that this 
letter is only a part of the original copy. 

y From Captain Guion to Ensign William Scott. 2 

Fort Massac June 15th. 1797. 
Sir, J 

You are to proceed with a party assigned for your conduct 
under your command; with all dispatch to. New Madrid on the 
Mississippi, and deliver to the Commanding officer of his Cath- 
olic Majesty's Post there, the letter entrusted to your charge 
and receive his answer; should he not think it proper to an- 
swer in writing, you will ask for his verbal communication and 
a receipt for the delivery of the letter just mentioned, and you 
will then return to this place, with the utmost expedition — 
While at New Madrid, on your way there, and also on your 
return, you are to keep your troops in due restraint, not surfer - 
ing them by word or action to offer the smallest disrespect to the 
Citizens subjects or troops of his Catholic Majesty; and should 
any person, subject of his Catholic Majesty be so imprudent 
as to attempt either directly or indirectly to alienate the affec- 
tion, or persuade from his allegiance, any soldier or subject of 
the United States under your command, you are to represent 
this conduct to the Commanding officer, claiming his protec- 
tion on the usage and custom of Nations in like cases — wish- 
ing you a pleasant tour & quick return, 

I am, 
Your Obedt. Humle. Servt. 
Ensign Wm. Scott. 

v From Captain Guion to General Wilkinson. 

„. ~ , Fort Massac June lGth 1797. 

Cher General, 

So precarious a conveyance, will only suffer me to mention 
my arrival at this post on the 9th instant, with my charge in 
good order — a variety of concurrent reports respecting the 
affairs de nos voisins, rendered it necessary for me to have an 
explicit knowledge of their disposition of suffering or opposing 
a passage — and therefore I dispatched Mr. Scott on the 15th 
with a letter to that end — a copy of it, and also of his instruc- 

2 He was a native of Maryland, in 1813 he was Lt. Col. 36 Int., dis- 
charged June 15, 1S1.1. 


tions I shall send by a sure conveyance — The river Mississippi 
is now very high & in fine order to descend. 

With unfeigned friendship, 
and real respect, I am Dear 
Sir, Your Obedient & 
The Honble. 1 Very Humble Servt. 

Gl. Wilkinson. ] I. G. 

By Simon Landrais, & Lafleur, Francois L'agency, et Fran- 
cois Billet — The first says he is a Cooper & was in Forsyth's 
employ at Detroit — 

June 21st 1797. - 

" Philip S tucker of Woodford County State of Kentucky left 
"New Orleans the 5th of April and took the route across Lake 
"pont Chartrain, but was stopped on the east side and sent 
"back to New Orleans; he left Orleans a second time the begin- 
ning of May and came up the river to Natchez — he says that 
* 'three galleys were laying at Orleans when he left that place, 
"and that about 300 soldiers were at Orleans, with the Baron 
"De Carondolet; that they were fitting out privateers there, 
"but that no troops from abroad had arrived this year. — He 
"left the Natchez the tenth of May and left Mr. Ellicott and 
"Pope 1 there in seperafe quarters, he also left there a Mr. McKee 
"an agent for the U. S. — That the people are much divided in 
"sentiment and uneasy, he passed through the Choctaw and 
" Chickasaw Nations on his way home, the Choctaws he says 
"appear to be friendly, but the Chickasaws are unequivocally 
"so — The Creeks inimical — much industry is used to excite 
"them to war on the subjects of the U. S., by our neighbours, and 
"he thinks that the Creeks will soon strike" — Mr. Stacker is 
"now on his way down the river with flour boa t-s, and he appears 
"to be a man of intelligence — 

1 Agents of the United States tor laying oil the boundary between the 
possessions of the Americans and the Spaniards. 

: 30 

Fro}>i Captain Guion to the Secretary of War. 
Q . v Camp near Fort Massac, July 4th 1797. 

Yesterday by Captain Demler 1 I had the honor to receive 
your communication in two packets of the dates 9th and 10th 
Ultimo, and covering Copies of several Official documents. I 
arrived at this place on the ninth ultimo at night, accompanyed 
by Ensign Scott with Captain Heth's Company, Surgeons Mate 
McCoskry, and a Mr. Evans Quarter Master to the detachment 
— and on the 15th following being still ignorant of the reply of 
the Spanish Commandant at New Madrid to General Wilkin- 
son's letter acquainting him with the movement of this detach- 
ment I dispatched Ensign Scott to him to endeavor to learn 
his disposition — Copies of my letter to him, of my instructions 
to Mr. Scott, and of the Spanish Colonels answer are enclosed 
— I also enclose a copy of a letter from Lieut. Pope at Natchez, 
it came to this place from New Madrid with Mr. Scott on the 
20th by a man who went with Mr. Pope as a drummer and 
whose term of service had expired. It appears by this letter 
as also from the enclosed extract of communication made to 
me by a Mr. Stucker, that the information given by the letter 
at Sea is accurate, at least they agree to corroborate in point 
of time several Circumstances — Captain Heth 2 and Lieut. Gregg 3 
joined me on the 19th Ultimo, and Captain Demler, with Lieut. 
Campbell and his Company of Artillery yesterday — If I may 
be permitted to adventure an opinion it is very evident that 
the reasons offered by the Chevalier from the Baron, to the 
Secretary of State are no more than so many specious evasions, 
calculated to amuse until some change of circumstance may 
render it propitious to declare openly; The vigorous warlike 
preparation making at St. Louis of upper Louisiana seems with 
other things to warrant this conclusion — I am preparing my 
boats to encounter the rapidity, and every vicissitude of the 
Mississippi, and shall leave this place on or before the Kit!: 
instant, nor shall I stop at new Madrid unless compelled by 

•Promoted Captain August 20, 1705; died March 11, 1799. 
-John Heth of Virginia; honorably discharged June 1. IS02. 
3 Aaron Gregg of Virginia; promoted Captain March 2, 1700, died 
October '12, 1804. 

• 31 

superior force; all commencement or shew of hostility, on the 
part of the troops of the United States which I have the honor 
to command, shall be studiously and scrupulously avoided — 
but all open and direct attack upon them shall be repelled with 
the utmost energy of our small number, and in such manner as 
I hope will not sully the reputation, or tarnish the lustre of the 
flag, of the Nation. 

a conveyance offering by the Cumberland river, I should have 
been wanting in my duty not to have seized the occasion to 
make this communication which shall be followed by another 
through the medium of Capt. Pike at this place, so soon as I 
shall have passed new Madrid — A Sergeant and three men are 
with the Chickasaws, they were sent at different times to apprise 
them of my coming. 

With the highest respect, 
Sir, I have the honor to be 
The Honoble. 1 Your Most Obedt. 

James McHenry & very Humble Servt. 

Secy, to the Departt. of War. 

From Captain Guion to General Wilkinson. 

On board the Experiment Near Massac, July 9th 1797. i. 

Dear General, 

I left the rapids of Ohio on the 3d Ultimo, as my letter of 
the 2d which I had the honor to write to you from that place 
anticipated; I arrived here on the 9th at night and on the 19th 
Captain Heth and Mr. Crregg arrived by whom I received your 
further communications and instructions of the 2d and 4th of 
June. The 15th after five clays fruitless trial to obtain some 
active intelligent person to get information from new Madrid, 
I dispatched Ensign Scott to that place, who returned on the 
20th Copies of the letter to the Spanish officer; of his answer, 
and of Mr. Seott's instructions are enclosed— nothing more was 
learned than what is fairly to be construed from his answer — 
great civility was shewn Mr. Scott, who was told that on their 
seeing his boat, they supposed it was the command coming to 


take Shelter there — On the 25th I employed one Thome from 

post Vincennes to go to and gain the information required. 

On the 3d instant Captain Demler joined me, with his company 
except a Corporal and four men left back at the falls with Doctor 
Pfeiffer, and with him two packets from the war office, of the 
9th & 10th of June covering Copies of letters to General Wilkin- 
son, a letter from the Secretary of War to myself a Copy of 
which is enclosed, and an extract of a letter dated" at Sea &c — 
and the day following an opportunity to KnoxVille by the 
Cumberland presenting I embraced it, and answered the Secre- 
tary, a Copy of my letter is also enclosed — On the 5th Thorne 
returned, he brought no new information, and but little depend- 
ence can be placed on his report, or indeed on that of any rene- 
gado in this quarter— I have however enclosed extracts from 
the reports of several, some are deserters real or feigned. On 
the 16th ultimo by one Landrais and three other Canadians 
from St. Louis I addressed a few words to you but distrusting 
the fidelity of my Messenger, I only announced my arrival here 
and of my sending Mr. Scott to New Madrid. On the 14th I 
sent a man by the river (in a boat with Elijah Craig from Ken- 
tucky who was bound to Orleans) to the Chickasaw Bluffs, with 
a message to them, and directions for him to find a Sergeant 
and two men of my Company who were sent by Captain Pike 
with your talk to the Chickasaws, and to get if possible one or 
more Chiefs to come in here; but no word has been yet brought, 
of or from them — 

Yesterday five Chickasaws hunters came in here, the first of 
that nation that have appeared here since my arrival, but for 
want of some one who speaks Chickasaw well it is with great 
difficulty we barely understand each other — They have been 
shewn their presents, and are apparently highly satisfied 
(pleased) — They say that they have been two months from 
home hunting, and know nothing of the people who have been 
sent to them — I have this day sent two of them back to their 
Towns with a talk, a Copy of which is enclosed, and have the 
promise of one of the remaining three to stay and go with me 
to the bluffs — He says, he is of George Colbert's 1 family & appears 

l A half breed Chickasaw Chief <>f influence and power; son of a Scotch- 
man; called Tootem Mostul be by the Indians; lived on Wolf Creek fonr 
miles south of Booneville, Prentiss County, Mississippi. 


very open & friendly — I have likewise engaged Captain Long- 
hair a Cherokee of some influence, whose Squaw speaks english 
w r ith great facility, to accompany me as far as the Bluffs — George 
Drouillard the young half-breed also goes — a number of Chero- 
kees are almost constantly at and about this place, and behave 
well. I have given them flour and a little salt at different times, 
but of tobacco, what they most desire, I have only five pounds 
weight received yesterday of Captain Pike, 1 who tells me that 
he was mistaken in his report made, Sir, to you, in the quantity. 
and that I have half of his stock — I enclose a Copy of a letter 
from Mr. Pope to Captain Pike ; from this and other information 
that I have been able to obtain, I think it may be fairly inferred 
that the Spaniards do not mean to give peaceable possession of 
the posts below; that they are strengthening the Wa limit Hills 3 
is out of doubt: and that they intend to repossess the bluffs I 
believe, but unless they are there before me, they will not get 
a quiet possession, and for which place I shall certainly set out 
on the 12th — The arrival of these Chickasaws will detain me a 
day or two, as I wish the bearer of the talk to be early enough 
for me — I shall not stop at New Madrid unless compelled, and 
I think it will be unnecessary to again inform them who we are, 
as my flag will announce itself — 

I have enclosed my Muster Rolls, Monthly and Inspection 
returns, Quarter Masters, Ordnance Stores and provision returns, 
and state of the Contingent Money; and likewise one pay 
receipt Roll by this conveyance, duplicate of this last paper is 
with Captain Pike to follow by the next dispatch. As soon as 
I have passed New Madrid I shall send George Droiiillard back 
to Massac with a report of the event — 

The Beef put up by the Contractor, notwithstanding it has 
been repacked and strong new pickle put on it here, has become 
so tainted and offensive as to be unwholesome and unfit to 
use — and which makes our situation very critical indeed, espe- 
cially if it is found improper to proceed farther down than the 
Bluffs — I have ordered the Commissaries to embark a few Beef 
Cattle and Hogs on foot, brought on the Contractors account 

1 Captain Zebulon Pike of New Jersey, a distinguished officer of the 
American Army, died July 27, 1834. 

2 A Spanish post, near the city of Vicksburg. 


from the red bank — but the stupid resourceless fellows seem to 
be totally lost; they are neither of them in any instance, calcu- 
lated for the business in which they are employed — I shall do 
the best I can to spin out with the little salt pork, and endeavour 
to procure some wild meat, till a further supply of Pork or fresh 
beef from Cumberland through the Chickasaw country can be 
furnished— ^ 

The relaxed state of discipline and police in this garrison is 
such, as to render it, in my opinion, necessary for some more 
active person to be here in so critical a conjuncture ; you must 
forgive me the presumption perhaps my zeal has carried me too 
far — I shall endeavour to act up to your orders, and to do what 
in my judgement is most for the welfare and honor of my Country 
where my discretion is to be employed. 

Whatever may be the result, no change of time or circum- 
stance can alter or change the ardency of affection or respect 
which I bear to you — and am 
Your very 

General Wilkinson 1 Humle. Servt. 

Commander in Chief I. Guion. 

of the Army of the United States 

From Captain Guion to Colonel Delassns. 

. On board the Boat Chickasaw on the 
~. '' Mississippi, July 16th 1797. 

I had the honor on the. 20th Ultimo to receive your letter of 
the 16th by Ensign Scott, who I have again dispatched to you, 
to inform you of my approach and of the necessity of my de- 
clining your friendly orler of halting at New Madrid with the 
troops of the United States under my command; as it would 
be a dereliction of my orders. I have sent with Mr. Scott for 
your perusal a letter which I am to deliver to his Excellency 
the Baron de Carondolet, and which I am at liberty to shew to 
any Officer of his Catholic Majesty, commanding a post on this 
river— you will see by it, that I am commanded to pay due 

35 1733114 

respects to the subjects and interests of your Sovereign; and 
I need not declare to you how happy I shall be in fulfilling these 
orders; as an earnest of my sincerity I now propose to salute 
the Spanish flag in the manner I am best able as my boats pass 
your post, not doubting but that the Flag of the United States 
under which I serve will receive a similar compliment, should 
the proposal meet your wishes; or if the contrary you will be 
pleased to signify it by Mr. Scott. Be pleased to make a ten- 
der of my respects to Mr. Derbigny, who I am informed resides 
near you. 

(G. W. 14 Aug.) 

With great regard 
I have the honor to be, Sir, 
Lt. Colol. Delassus 1 Your very Obedt, 

Commdr. of New Madrid. J Humble Servt. I. G. 

From Captain Guion to Sergeant Grande. 

Chickasaw Bluffs 1 July 21st 1797. 

A sudden and violent attack of a fever prevented me yester- 
day from answering your note I received in the morning — You 
say "you have no orders from your Superior to permit me to pass," 
this I doubt not, nor that you have any orders to the contrary, 
as they would be extraordinary indeed, the treaty between 
Spain and the United States taken into view. 

The troops of the United States under my command shall 
not, with my consent, be the first to break the treaty — 

(G. W. 14 Aug.) I am Sir, 

Your Obedt. Humble Servt. 
Augustin Grande 
Sergt. Command, of 
His Catholic Majesty's 
post of Hopefield. 

1 Location of Memphis, Term. 


From Captain Guion to the Secretary of War. 

Chickasaw Bluffs July 24th 1797. 

On the 21st instant at this place where I arrived the preced- 
ing day with all my boats in good order, I had the honor to 
receive your packet under the date of the 15th Ultimo — -You 
are pleased to observe therein that I am expected to be at Nat- 
chez when your dispatches should reach me ; but when you receive 
the communication I had the honor to address to you from 
Fort Massac of the 4th instant, together with the present and 
its enclosures, and the necessity of concentring my force 
agreeably to my orders from General Wilkinson whenever cir- 
cumstances should in my judgment render such a measure 
necessary, you cannot but approve of my halt at this point: 
indeed If I had not, one part of my orders would have been 
flatly disobeyed ; namely to distribute to the Chickasaws at 
this place their presents: They had assembled here as early as 
the 14th of June last but by the delay, which they attribute to 
the true cause, and for Want of provision, were obliged to go 
off; except William Colbert and about one hundred* of his 
people who only were remaining when I arrived; some strag- 
ling ones are hourly coming in, and tomorrow, I am told that 
Piamingo, and the Wolfs friend, chiefs, will be here — On the 
enclosed there need no comment: every occurrence to the most 
minute, tends to the same point, and are too strikingly obvious 
to be mistaken by the dullest observer. 

In a day or two hence I shall dispatch to Governor Gayoso 
at Natchez the presidents message and to the inhabitants its 
contents, as well as to the Governor General the instructions 
from my government of agreeing to the demolition of the Works ; 
w r hich can be as well done with the acquiescence of the Officer 
of the United States now here, and will as effectually remove 
the pretended obstacle,' as if done under the eye of the Com- 
mander of the Army — Be assured, Sir, that neither the demo- 
lition of the Works, nor the solicitude of securing to the inhab- 
itants of that district the titles to their land are the real causes 
for the detention of these posts — Mad I halted at New Madrid 

♦Fifty men and as many women and children. 



but one day with the troops, and every means but violence 
was used to effect it, a great point had been gained by our 
neighbours, whose vessel from Natchez, laden with presents 
of Blankets, Shirts, Hats, Muskets, powder & lead, Tomahawks, 
Saddles and bridles &c. for the Chiekasaws arrived at their 
garrison of Hopefleld opposite to this place, about eight hours 
before our arrival here — Great pains and much industry have 
been used to detach from the friendship of the United States 
this nation of Indians; and I fear they have been in a consid- 
erable degree successful — A Cousin to Wolfs friend came up 
in the Vessel just spoken of from Orleans — and on the day of 
our arrival, in a fit of inebriety, declared himself a Spanish 
Chickasaw Chief, shewed a Commission from the Baron De 
Carondolet dated 26th May at Orleans, and sadly abused the 
Americans; observing in intelligible english that when the 
Wolfs friend his Uncle arrived we should receive a talk that 
would make our hearts ache- — and I am informed that he is 
greatly dissatisfied with the Americans, but know not for what 
cause — discord has spread her influence in this nation. The 
mountain leader and Wm. Colbert 1 are I believe firm friends, 
the other not ; part of their dispute has arisen about this 
spot on which the Spaniards had their works erected, and the 
circumjacent local. It seems that the Wolfs friend had sold it to 
the Spaniards as his land and the others deny his entire right, 
observing that when the Americans came they should do as 
they pleased with it; I shall endeavor to obtain the general 
consent of all the Chiefs and headmen to sutler us to sit down 
here; the spot for a fortress is an eligible one, and can, to go 
below, be abandoned at almost any time. The promise I made 
Lt. Colonel Delassus did not cost much, as this was the point 
of view before I left the Ohio; in the course of conversation 
between Colonel Delassus and myself, he observed, that in 
his opinion the true cause for the detention of the posts below 
was the expectation that France would be at war with the 
United States; but that the business would now blow Over — 
it is certain that the Spaniards intended to re-occupy this spot 
very soon — 

l A noted half breed war chief of the Chiekasaws, son of Colbert, a 
Scotchman, called by the Indians Chooshewataha; aided the Ameri- 
cans in the Revolution and War of 1812, lived a little south of old Me- 
Intoshville near the present town of Pontotoc, Miss. 


I should have made this communication some days earlier 
but have been prevented by a violent intermittent which at- 
tacked me on the 18th and has so enfeebled me that I am barely 
able to hold the pen. 

Tobacco which could be purchased very low in Kentucky, 

would be highly gratifying to these Indians; I have very little 

for them, and they are very solicitous for it. 

,^ ^ « tttv With the most perfect respect 

(2 Sept. G. W.) r\u a- + 

r Sir, I am your very Obedient 

The Honorble. Humble Servant. 

James McHenry 

Secy of War. 

From Captain Guion to Governor Gayoso. 

Chickasaw Bluffs, August 1st 1797. 

I have the honor to enclose to your Excellency a Copy of a 
message from the President of the United States, to Congress; 
and also an extract of a letter recently received by me from the 
Secretary for the department of War, both tending to prove 
to your Excellency the pacific disposition of the Government 
of the United States, and their willingness to accede to the 
proposal of His Excellency the Baron of Carondolet: viz, the 
demolition of the fortresses at Natchez and Wa limit Hills, rather 
than interrupt the harmony and good understanding happily 
established by the treaty between the two nations. 

I need not declare to your Excellency how happy I should 
have been to have had the honor to deliver with my own hand 
what I now forward by a messenger; but. this happiness by an 
untoward event is for the present denied me; yet I trust that 
this obstacle will shortly be removed when I shall have the 
felicity of declaring in person how much I am 

Your Excellency's 
respectful, Obedient, 
His Excellency ) and very humble Servt. 

Manuel Gayoso DeLemos. j (G. W.) 

__ (2d Sep tr.) 1 

l These notes indicate that a copy of the letter was sent to General 


From Captain Guion to the Baron De Carondolet. 2 

~. Chickasaw Bluffs August 1st 1797. 

Sir, & 

When in May last, I was commanded, on the duty to this 
quarter in which I am now engaged; I then flattered myself 
with having the honor of presenting to your Excellency in per- 
son the packet addressed to your Excellency, of which I have 
been so far the bearer; but unforeseen difficulties respecting 
the delivery of the posts of Natchez and Wallnut Hills having 
arisen, deprives me of that honor. 

I avail myself of the descent of Mr. Joseph Gillard, whose 
respectability and fidelity stands fair, to transmit to your Ex- 
cellency these dispatches from General Wilkinson, as well as a 
transcript of orders I have recently received from the Presi- 
dent of the United States by the Secretary of War, in which 
I am supposed to be at Natchez, and am directed to accord 
to the demolition of the works, anterior to the evacuation or 
forsaking of the places of Wallnut Hills and Natchez by the 
troops of his Catholic Majesty: But as I had given my parole 
to Lieutenant Colonel Dehault Delassus Commandant of New 

Madrid on the lGth Ultimo that I would not advance from this 
post untill information was had either from your Excellency 
or from my General or other superior in my Government that 
the existing difficulty between the two powers was removed, 
I hold myself sacredly bound to observe it — 

I have greatly to regret that this occurrence has prevented 
me from manifesting in any other manner, my zeal to fulfill the 
orders and desire of the President of the United States, and 
permit me, Sir to add, which so fully accord with my own feel- 
ings, that of paying due regard to the persons and the property 
of the subjects of his Catholic Majesty, of cherishing and pro- 
moting concord harmony and a good understanding between 
the Citizens and subjects of the two nations, thereby to estab- 
lish the principles of the treaty of friendship limits and navi- 
gation entered into and concluded by the respective powers 
according to the true intent and meaning thereof. 

I have also to acknowledge the receipt of a Copy of your 
Excellency's communication made to General Wilkinson under 
date of the 29th May Ultimo which was handed to me about 

2 The Spanish Governor General. 


an hour since, with a letter from Mr. Thomas Powers, who is 
he says bearer of the original; his letter is dated at Louisville 
the 16th of July Ultimo and was forwarded by Mr. Gillard— 
The same attention shall be given to the spirit contained in 
your Excellency's communication as if it came from my com- 
manding General in orders, untill I am absolved from my prom- 
ise passed to Colonel Delassus, and I shall in all instances en- 
deavour to prove by my conduct, the sincerity of my assertions. 
(G. W. sent 2d Sept.) With the most profound respect 

His Excellency "1 I have the honor to be, your 

The Baron of > Excellency's most Obedt. & very 

Carondolet. Humble Servt. 

From Captain Guion to Lieutenant Pope. 1 

Chickasaw Bluffs August 24th 1797. 

I wrote to you by Sergeant Campbell on the fourth instant, 
and enclosed you an extract of a letter which I received from the 
Secretary of War, as well as several Copies of the President's 
Message to Congress which I hope you have long since received: 
on the 12th instant I received a letter from the Governor General 
Gayoso, in which I am sorry to observe a complaint against you 
ior improper conduct, and in that degree as to expose the two 
nations to serious misunderstandings; not to be promoted, but 
most strenuously and scrupulously avoided, and which I am cer- 
tain were the tenor of your orders, anterior to those in my 
letter of the 4th instant. 

I hope however that if there has been just cause of dissatis- 
faction on the part of Governor Gayoso, it will no longer con- 
tinue, and that you will remove it by a change of conduct — 
Mr. Knox the bearer of this letter Will be able to give you the 
current information, as he is in possession of many gazettes 
besides being recently from the Capital — Enclosed is a descrip- 
tion of two deserters from Captain Heth's Company, whom if 
you can apprehend within the limits of the United States, you 
will not fail to have done — With friendship, 

Lieut Piercy Tope ; (2d Sepr.) I am your 

N'atchez. / Obedt. Humble Servt. 

»A native of Virginia in command of a detachment of United States 


From Captain Guion to Governor Gayoso. 

c . C. (Chickasaw) Bluffs August 27th 1797. 


On the 12th instant I had the honor to receive your Excel- 
lency's communication of the 25th Ultimo from Natchez, and 
have waited untill now for a conveyance offered me by Colonel 
Howard, to acknowledge it. The communication I made to 
your Excellency from this place on the first instant, which com- 
pletely removes every difficulty or objection offered to the 
evacuation of the posts of Wallnut Hills and Natchez, by the 
Baron your predecessor in Office in his letter of the 29th of 
May from Orleans to General Wilkinson the Commander in 
Chief of the Army of the United States, I hope you received 
before you left Natchez to go to your governmental residence — 

Indeed, from the expressions of friendship towards the troops 
of the United States and your not knowing the motive that 
influenced your predecessor in his conduct, mentioned in your 
Excellency's letter of the 25th of July last, I have no room to 
doubt, now that you are in the chief command, but that your 
orders are already Issued for the abandonment of the posts. 
I am sorry to hear that the Officer heretofore commanding the 
troops of the United States at Natchez, has given either to the 
inhabitants of that district, or to the subjects of his Catholic 
Majesty, the smallest' just cause of uneasiness or discontent; 
at all events this will no longer be the case as his orders are to 
observe a different conduct, and his superior Officer will I hope 
shortly be there to command in person. 

(2 Sep.) With the greatest respect, 


I am Your Excellency's 
Most Obedt. Humble Servt. 
I. G. coming, the 
Troops of U. S. on the 

His Excellency 
Don Manuel Gayoso DeLemos 
General & Commander in Chief 
of the Province of Louisiana 
& West Florida. 



From Captain Guion to General Wilkinson. 

„- t-. ~ , Chickasaw Bluffs September 2d 1797. 

My Dear General, 

My last letter to you was of the 14th Ultimo by Mr. McCluny 
in which I informed you of the arrival of Colonel (Charles) 
Howard 1 at hopeneld the Spanish post opposite us; The Chick- 
asaWs had then but just arrived and as I mentioned in that 
communication it appears to have been preconcerted that the 
Wolfs friend, Who is decidedly in the Spanish interest, should 
not come in with his people untill his friends the Spaniards 
should arrive with their force: This Indian gave me all the 
trouble he could or dared to offer, constantly objecting to our 
remaining on this ground, even at the moment of his receiving 
his part of the presents from us: but William Colbert who knew 
his intentions, and being determined- to support with all his 
interest the promise he had made me on the eve of his leaving 
us; returned to this place on the 16th and acted with much 
honesty and firmness, lie told the other many severe things; 
that we were here by his consent and wished to know who was 
the man in his nation that should make his word or promise 
pass for nothing. That when we were satisfied with staying, we 
might go. but not before; that he the Wolfs friend had talked 
of force, but that he would do well to recollect who were the 
Warriors of his nation; that before the Americans should be 
forced from this ground he would be killed by their side and 
buried here. This strong talk, seconded by Piamingo 2 put an 
end to all further propositions of our immediate removal, pre- 
pared by our neighbours, and put in the mouth of their Chick- 
asaw Oracle. On the ISth they received their presents, and 
when they were displayed the contrast was so great, and so 
superior to what they received of the Spaniards, that they testi- 
fied their joy aloud, and left us well satisfied — during their stay 
here I was obliged to feed them; and they devoured at least 
forty barrels of flour; some beef, salt and whisky. 

The Wolfs friend with his people remained here untill the 22d 
two days before a runner came in from the towns with a report 
of the approach of the Creeks, but this made no impression on 

1 An Iri h -.:• ntleman in the service of Spain 
'The chief ruler or King uf the Chickasaws. 


him; Colbert, who also remained to watch him, told me that he 
did not credit the report when it first came, and insinuated that 
it was made for certain purposes. The friendship shown us by 
this man and Piamingo, but more peculiarly Colbert, deserves 
some distinct attention from our government. I have lately 
heard from them and all is quiet — 

We have lived in the best neighbourhood with Colonel Howard 
and his detachment, visiting and reciprocating civilities, until 
yesterday morning, when he having embarked what troops he 
brought down with him from St. Louis (about one hundred) got 
under way with his four galleys and descended the river; he 
did not declare the point of his destination, though he talked 
much of Natchez and Orleans, and of the necessity of his retiring 
to acquire better health, which has lately been very bad; yet I 
am pretty well informed that he means to halt at a spot, called 
the Pre, a little below the river St. Francois, which is never 
inundated though often surrounded with high floods, and there 
erect works for a Garrison — it is said to be about sixty five miles 
below this place, and I suppose better situated for their future 
views than the spot opposite here, the parade of which was under 
water three feet the last flood; besides it will be but little far- 
ther distant from the Chickasaw Towns, and nearer to the Choc- 

They have left at hopefield the former garrison of Sergt. 
Grande, a Mr. Foy Interpreter and Commissary, and twelve 
men. Owing to the number of sick in the detachment, I have 
been able only to continue a small working party to extend our 
defences; the sick list is now diminishing a little, and I hope in 
two or three weeks hence to have it reduced to the ordinary 
number: if the effect of our labor was in greater forwardness I 
should have subjoined- to the rough sketch which 1 sent in my 
letter of the 14th Ultimo what has been since done; but in my 
next I promise myself that pleasure, when 1 hope it may be 
nearly compleated. 

As I informed your Excellency in my letter of the 9th of July 
from Massac, the salt meat put up by the contractor, was untit 
to use before we reached this place, but fortunately for us an 
inhabitant of the Bluffs had just at our arrival received a drove 
of thirtv-four heads of beef cattle from the interior of the Coun- 


try for sale to our neighbours, and which I directed the Com- 
missary to purchase for the contractors account ; for the payment 
I drew a bill on the Secretary of War and sold to Mr. Elisha 
Winter who was ascending the river, to be charged to the Con- 
tractor at the Treasury Office. You will see by the Commissary s 
return, that we have fourteen head of them still on hand, and I 
am promised thirty head more, whenever I please to send for 
them at the nearest Chickasaw town, by one James Allan a 
white man who resides there and is married to a sister of William 
Colbert; my reason for troubling you with all this detail, is to 
shew our resource and lessen the solicitude and anxiety that I 
know, Sir, you feel for the support and welfare of this detach- 

enclosed are copies of several letters not before forwarded to 
you, and also copies of monthly and all other returns — If we 
should be suddenly ordered to remove from here, I fear we should 
have some difficulty as our boats are in a leaky condition, and 
oakum we have none, nor is there any to be had here. I shall 
however in such an emergency do, as we are ever obliged to, the 
best we can — 

With the purest friendship, and 
Respect, I have the honor to be, 
Dear Sir, your very Obedient 
His Excellency ] Servant — ■ 

Brigadr. Genl. Wilkinson 
Commander in Chief. 

From Captain Guion to Captain Zebulon Pike. 

_. Chickasaw Bluffs 25th September 1797. 


I had the satisfaction to receive your communication of the 

8th instant by Sergeant Brown on the 21st following, together 

with a packet from the commander in chief; and the Boat with 

the beef Cattle, which I believe he delivered to the Contractors 

agent in good order: I say believe, as a raging fever when Brown 

arrived held me on my back, and has prevented me from stirring 

abroad; and untill now from answering you, and sending back 

. 45 

your people whom I expressly detained -till I was able — I know 
of no one other packet having miscarried but that you mention 
not to have received, the fellow was to go to Knox Ville it seems 
from the C. (Choctaw) Towns and then to return by your post, 
he had dispatches for the Secretary of War to be left at Knox- 
Ville — Since, I have sent one packet by McCluny, & another by 
McClain both directly to you. The instance you mention of 
"our interrupting dispatches in their passage from the Spanish 
"government," I am totally unacquainted with, and beg you to 
be explicit on that particular in your next — your supply of Beef 
arrived very timely ; although we had killed the last one of my 
ordered purchase at this place, we had still a resource in some 
nine or ten other head on the Bluffs; but yours have by far the 
preference — You ask me why I did not intimate to you my 
intention of halting at this place and tarrying for some time; 
did you not, my good Sir, recollect that two of my boats Were 
loaded with Chickasaw annuities, to be delivered to them at 
this place — besides my informing you; after Mr. Scotts return 
with Colonel Delassus answer telling me that we must halt at 
New Madrid; that this was all a finesse on their part to prevent 
our fulfilment of promises to this Indian nation, and thereby 
detach them from us; and that nothing short of a superiority 
of force at New Madrid should cause me to stop short of this 
Spot, on which I would endeavour to gain the Indians consent 
to erect a fortress? 

I have obtained almost the general consent; and should before 
this day, if sickness of which we have had a large share had not 
prevented, completed a snug little cover for one hundred men to 
maintain a foothold. I am more and more convinced that the 
object of our neighbours, among other procrastinations and 
evasions, Was very soon after the period that we came here (had 
We not arrived) to have rebuilt on the spot which they had evacu- 
ated and burnt in the Spring. Colonel Howard who arrived 
here the 12th Ultimo strove by every plausible and artful means 
of his address to draw me away from this place, insinu 
tins was an improper time for the U S to think of erecting works 
here, and the like cajoling; but finding his eloquence of little' 
Weight he took leave on the first of this month & went down the 
river. This instant I have received a letter from the Chickasaw 



Towns confirming what I have just written; these people have 
an intercourse with the Xatchez, which can be made in eight 
days. Enclosed you will find a Copy of my permission to Doctor 
Pfeifrer to visit his family, from which you will observe that he 
left us on the eleventh ; I have since heard with much regret that 
he Was sick on his way up, and could with great difficulty make 
ten miles per day. Sergeant Brown will be able to give you 
every information on that Score — I thank you most heartily and 
sincerely for the Vegetables you were so good as to send us, never 
were the like more welcome; and so soon as our Orangery pro- 
duces we will make you a return— make my respects to all the 
ladies & gentlemen about you, and believe me Dear Captain to 
be your friend, and very obedient 

Capn. Zebn. Pike 1 Humble Servant, 

commg. Fort Massac J I. G 

P. S. Sergeant Brown & the two men are victualled up to 
the Sixth proximo inclusive. — 

To Colonel Delassus. 

Chickasaw Bluffs Sepr. 25, 1797. 

I received your favor of the 17th instant by Sergeant Brown, 
as well as one some time in the begining of the last month, both 
at a time of a very severe illness, and which must apologize for 
my not acknowledging the receipt of your first, at an earlier 
period. Hudson, the person you mention, I am informed did 
come to this place with two other men from Xew Madrid, all of 
whom went away the next day, yet I cannot learn that he left 
or sold any tools here, or they should be reclaimed and restored 
to the proper Owners. We have fellows on this ground of similar 
principles, who would secret them for him and perhaps they may 
be yet obtained, and if - • you will be informed of it. I hope you 
enjoy better health Jian 1 do at these infernal bluffs, which have 
caused so much blustering, please to mention me to Monsieur 
Fardevous. I have the honor to be 

your very Obedient Servt. 
Colonel Dehault Delassus I. Guion. 

Xew Madrid. 


To Governor General Gaycso. 

Chickasaw Bhi: r s October 3d 1797. 

Yesterday evening I had the honor to receive Your Excellency's 
communication dated the 19th of August last at New Orleans, 
with a letter addressed to General Wilkinson which shall be 
immediately transmitted to him. After the communication I 
had the honor to make to you on the 1st of August last, which 
you acknowledge to have received I had entertained a hope that 
the posts in question would be abandoned by the troops of Spain, 
as the difficulties mentioned by the Baron of Carondolet in his 
letter of the 29th of May to General Wilkinson, were completely 
removed by the President of the United States, and no new 
matter is mentioned by your Excellency. It would have been 
full as consonant with the principles of our profession to have 
candidly declared the real cause of delaying the evacuation of 
those posts, and that the ultimate decision rested with the 
governments of the two powers — 

Not knowing the situation of Villa Gayoso, 1 It will only be 
after I have seen the different positions in the district of Natchez, 
within the limits of the United States, that I can determine on 
the place to post the troops of the United States under my com- 
mand — As far as it depends on me, and is consistent with the 
dignity of the United States and the comfort and safety of their 
troops, the harmony and tranquility subsisting between the two 
nations shall not be disturbed — 

With the highest consideration of 
respect, I have the honor to be. 
Sir, Your Excellency's very Obedient 
and Humble Servant 
His Excellency Manuel 
Gayoso De Lemos Governor 
General of Louisiana and 
West Florida. 

l A Spanish fort midway between Natchez and Walnut Hills. 


To the Secretary of War. 

Fort Adams, Chickasaw Bluffs 

October 22d 1797. 

Since my last communication to you which was of the 24th 
of July, Ultimo, through the Chickasaw nation and via Knox- 
Ville, I have been honored with your several- dispatches of the 
13th of July by Mr. Knox with duplicates of yours of the 9th 
of June to General Wilkinson, & of the 10th & 15th of the same 
month to myself; and by Captain Hunter with that of the 27th 
of. July, duplicate of the 13th of the same, and triplicate of the 
loth of June: and now by Mr. Toler express from Pittsburgh, 
with one of the 1st of September, and Copy of one of the 25th 
of August to General Wilkinson — Contrary to my information 
the Mountain leader, the King, and the Wolfs. friend did not 
arrive at this place untill the 10th & 12th of August with their 
people to receive their annuities, this delay in these Chiefs, may 
be ascribed to different causes; Piamingo had remained at home 
to defend his Town against the Creek Indians who it was reported 
meditated an attack on the Chickasaws: The Wolfs friend, who 
is a warm friend to the Spaniards, and a cunning designing fellow, 
had other motives: his movement was governed by that of the 
Spaniards, and I am well persuaded that it was preconcerted 
that he should come in at a certain period fixed, by which time 
the Spanish Galleys & troops from St. Louis should be at their 
Garrison of Hopefield opposite this place. 

To this period they had received their presents brought up 
from Orleans for distribution to the Chickasaws, and as they 
entertained an opinion that we had few or no goods to give the 
Indians, they conceived .this a favourable moment to carry the 
point ; by an imposing air of superiority of force, great generosity; 
introduced by a strong talk from their Chickasaw orator the 
Wolfs friend, they were confident that we should not be suffered 
to remain here where they again contemplated to erect works. 
On the 12th of August in the morning Colonel Charles Howard 
With about one hundred men of the Regiment of Louisiana, and 
five Galleys arrived from St. Louis. The wolfs friend immedi- 
ately crossed the river and held a days conference with his 
friends there; when he returned he proposed that the next day 


we should meet for the purpose of hearing a talk he intended to 
give & wished he said his friend Colonel Howard to be present 
and hear it — as I knew that William Colbert would not be in 
here before the 15th I wished to delay it till he arrived, and 
Piamingo falling sick the next day, the meeting was consequently 
postponed untill the 16th agreeably to my wishes. Colbert 
arrived the 15th in the Evening prepared to oppose the Wolfs 
friend and determined to support his promise of our remaining 
and fortifying here, which he & John Brown made me on the 
30th of July when they returned to their Towns — and in conse- 
quence of this promise I had begun to erect works — On the 16th 
we met & Colonel Howard came over with two of his Officers, 
made a great many apologies as it was only to gratify the Wolfs 
friend who had he said insisted on his presence, and beg'd that 
when they distributed their presents that I would come over & 
be a witness in like manner, which I instantly declined observing 
that I had no manner of objection to his being present at what 
was to be said or done here, that I had very little to say to them 
more than to recommend them to live peaceably among them- 
selves, and in good neighbourhood with the Indians and Subjects 
in the Spanish territory. William Colbert who anticipated the 
Wolfs friends design, began with an animated & bold talk; he 
told that Chief he knew his intention Was, if possible, to turn us 
away and replace his friends the Spaniards; But this should not 
be while he was living: that the xvorks we were begining was 
done with his consent and his peoples, & wished to know who 
Was the chief man in his nation that should make nothing of 
his promise. That when we Were satisfied staying or doing 
anything on that ground, we might at our pleasure go but not 
before ; that he had heard that the Wolfs friend had talked of force 
but that he would dovvell to recollect who were the warriors of his 
nation; that before the Americans should be forced from this 
ground he would be killed by their side and buried here. Tl i 
strong talk seconded by a short but strong m Piamin > 

sealed up the great Orators mouth end confounded the S] i 
Visitants who came prepared to hear every thing else. Tims 
the conference ended ; and the da}- following the goods were dis- 
played and given to them. The liberality of the supply, the 
superior quality of the goods at once surprised and contented 


all present; especially after the Spaniards had made their do- 
nation, which was not more than one fourth part as much in 
woolens & linnensjand the remainder of tinseled frippery, rid- 
iculed & treated With contempt by Piamingo. I heard no word 
of dissatisfaction from any of them after this, all desirous of 
our stay and willing that We should put up what Works we 

The 22d the Wolfs friend and his people left us apparently 
well satisfied. Colonel Howard, remained our good neighbour untill 
the 1st of September when he embarked what troops came 
down with him, and descended the river; during his stay at 
Hopefield We reciprocated visits and civilities & the flags 
of the two nations at his departure received a mutual salute. 
I continued my working party as my effective strength per- 
mitted, having had for near two months past three fourths of 
the detachment down with intermittent & remittent fevers; 
the business went on but slowly in consequence, but I have 
this day, having the gates finished & put up and my flagstaff 
erected, under a federal salute called the Fort Adams. 1 

I shall go on to the completion of the buildings within and 
the works without untill near the end of this month and shall 
then fit such of my flat boats as are in the best repair to enable 
me to embark my detachment and leave this place on the 1st 
of November next. A plan of the Fort and its buildings will 
be sent to the War Office in my next — I shall leave at this place, 
unless ordered to the contrary, one Subaltern, two Sergeants, 
two Corporals Sc twenty-two privates with provisions for six 
Months, and Stores of every other kind equivalent to the Strength 
of the Command, enclosed are Copies of all my correspond- 
ence with the Spanish Officers and Subjects, since the 24th of 
July, and also, copy of an account advanced to the Contract) r's 
agent, to be charged to the Contractor; one set of the vouchers 
accompanies it; also one receipt for Indian annuities de- 
livered to the Chickasaws. Agreeable to the permission 
given to me by the Secretary of War in Ids several letter: 
of the 10th of June I drew a bill at ten days sight on the loth 
of August, in favour of Messrs. Hunt for five hundred dollars; 

'In honor . of President Adams, afterwards called Fort Pickering, 
which name is still applied to South Memphis. 


and on the 20th following one other in favour of Elisha Win- 
ter for one thousand dollars also at ten days sight. One thou- 
sand and eighty-four dollars of this money has been applied to 
the Contractors service; and the ballance is in my hands. There 
are at this place four white families who came here two and 
three years ago and have remained ; the first and of most con- 
sequence is one Kenneth Ferguson a Scotchman, and is either 
a partner of, or agent for the House of Panton & Lesley of Pen- 
sacola, a decided Spanish subject, and is the man alluded to in 
the Wolfs friends letter to the Secretary of State of the 2d of 
April. "You know one Hanton &c." He is extensive in the 
Indian trade and was placed here by Governor Gayoso to gain 
the Chickasaws. These people complain much of his extortion 
and are very desirous to have a store opened here from the 
United States, such they observe as is at KnoxVille — another of 
these people is one Wm. Mizell a native of North Carolina and 
Who I fancy followed the fortune of the british arms in the late 
War as he was at Pensacola when the Spaniards took that place ; 
he is an inoffensive man no friend in the least to the Spaniard 
and has rendered us much sendee since our halt here by inter- 
preting Chickasaw which he speaks Well having lived sixteen 
years with that people. I have given him rations, and prom- 
ised him that I would mention him to the Secretary of War, in 
order that if it should be judged proper, he might receive some 
compensation for his sendees. John Brown and his brother 
both steady good Chickasaws, have requested me to call your 
recollection to a claim their nation has on ten miles square of 
lands in the State of South Carolina opposite Augusta on the 
Savannah river & Horse Creek; they say that the Secretary of 
War has a plat of the land in question, and that they wish for 
some decision on this business. That Governor Blount had 
promised them his good offices in this affair, but hearing of his 
defect they applied to the executive through me. 

With the most perfect respect, 
Sir, I have the honor to be, 
Your very Obedient 
The Honorable Humble Sen ant, 

James Me Henry Esqr. } I. G. C. in 

Secretary of War. the A. of U. S. 


To General Wilkinson. 

Fort Adams Chickasaw Bluffs Octo. 23d 97. 
My Dear Sir, 

On the 20 Ultimo I was. honored with your communication 
of the 1st and 2d of August, with several enclosures; and .on 
the 20th instant with that of the 5th Ultimo and the several 
documents accompanying it, than which nothing could have 
given me more satisfaction. I hope before now you -have re- 
ceived my several letters which I had the pleasure to address 
to you from this place covering copies of all my correspondence 
in the order which it arose. The first by express in July through 
the Chickasaws, the next by the river in August by a Mr. Mc- 
Cluny; and lastly till now by Mr. McClain of the 2d Ultimo by 
the river to Captain Pike. They will unfold the causes of my 
being here untill this time; The delay of the Chickasaws, the 
state of my provisions, the unhealthy state of the Troops; and 
more than all the apparent policy of the Dons, who beyond 
question intended to re-establish a post here, and which I deter- 
mined to prevent, has kept me till now in this position. 

Our neighbours would rather have had us at Xatchez, or any 
other place on this river than here: Colonel Howard frequently 
in conversation observed to me how unfit a time he thought it 
Was for the U. States to think of establishing a post here, as 
the Indians were undecided about the propriety of the boundary 
line; and a great deal of such rubbish — I have however con- 
trary to their wishes, and expectation enclosed and nearly com- 
pleted a work conformably to the plan herewith fonvarded; 
and having erected my flagstaff; under a federal discharge 
yesterday called the Fort Adams. I hope my conduct in all this 
business may meet your approbation. I shall continue work- 
ing on the barracks and magazine untill the close of this month, 
when leaving Lieutenant Campbell, two Sergeants, two Cor- 
porals, and twenty four privates, six of whom will be of the 
Artillery with three Iron pi unders and two 23^ Inch Howitzers, 
provisions of flour, whisky salt &c. for six months, and twenty 
head of Beef Cattle, & all other kind of Stores which we possess, 
equivalent to the strength of the Command, embark the re- 
mainder of my detachment, and proceed to tl e Xatchez. 


enclosed is a Copy of my letter in answer to one from Governor 
Genl. Gayoso of the 19th of August; as I broke the seal of his let- 
ter to your Excellency of the same date which I now forward, I 
forbear. to send a Copy of that to me. I also send forward returns 
of every kind to the 1st instant & the Muster Rolls of the Detach- 
ment; by them your Excellency will observe that although We 
have had a great many sick we have had but one death. I wish 
this were all our loss, eight having disgracefully deserted, six 
from Captain Demlers, and two from Captain Heth's Companies: 
I expect to apprehend the two latter as I have reason to believe 
they are in Natchez district. I shall pay the troops left at Fort 
Adams up to the latter end of August, so that they will be but 
two Months in arrear. The Quarter masters depu+y Mr. Harra- 
gan, thought proper to withhold one of the two Garrison flags made 
at Cincinnati by your order; this was not disclosed to me by my 
Qr. Mr. untill our arrival at Massac; I shall then only be able to 
leave with Mr. Campbell my Boat flag as a substitute ; my Com- 
pany are much in want of Blankets not having received for their 
five years sendee on an average more than three blankets per 
man — 

With fixed sentiments of true respect and esteem, 
I remain your Excellencys very Obedt. 
His Excellency Brigar. Humble Sen-ant, 

Genl. Wilkinson, Commr. f I. Guion Captain &c. 

in Chief of the Army of the U.S.J 

To Major Isaac Craig 1 . 

Fort Adams Chickasaw Bluffs 
Sir, . October 23d. 17 ( /»7. 

1 had the pleasure to receive your favour of the 9th Ultimo 
together with dispatches from the Secretary of War. safe on the 
H)th instant: as aiso a packet oi gazettes, tor which I return you 
my sincere thanks. Mr. Toler Wvll be detained a Couple of days 
longer as I wish to avail myself of his return being a confidential 

*An officer of the Continental Army from Pennsylvania, (J. M, under 
General VVavne. died June 14, 1S20. 


man, to send my dispatches to the General as well as to the War 
Office; and this will take me some time as it contains a lengthy 
correspondence. I have engaged a man by the name of Moore 
Smith to assist Mr. Toler in ascending the river; I have made no 
agreement With him, what sum he is to receive for his services 
will be regulated by yourself on Mr. Tolers declaration of his 
merit. I have been at this place since the 20th of July last and 
have erected a Fort which I have called Adams, I shall garrison 
it and leave it about the first of the next Month and repair to 
Natchez. Any more gazettes that you may have perused will at 
all times be thankfully received, please to mention me to Gen- 
eral and Colonel Neville, and all my other friends in your quarter, 
and believe me sir, 

your friend, and respectful 
Humble Servant 

I. Guion Captain 

in the A. of U. S. 
P. S. The rations of provisions 
to Mr. Toler has been 1 & *4 pr. Man 
Pr. diem, & 1 */£ Jills of whisky extra. 
Here — 3 Men for 4 days at that rate 
4 do " 15 " Idem. 

& 2 Doz. Musket Cartridges. 
Major Isaac Craig D. Q. M. G. Pittsburgh. 

To Doctor George Pjeiffer. 

Fort Adams October 23d 1700 [71. 

Your two letters of the 7th and 12th instant I received at one 
moment on the 19th. I am happy to hear that Mrs. Pfeifter has 
recovered from her late indisposition and that you are in good 

Sympathy for the state of your family Doctor was the spring 
by which I was moved to grant you the time you were to be 
absent in the first instance. How often did I repeat it to you, 
that I was doing an act for which I might be se\ erely censured, as 
I knew I was reprehensible; and as often did you promise Sir, as 


faithfully to return if you had health ; I now call on your honor not 
to commit me, and oblige me to have recourse to what must be 
vastly disagreeable to us both. I cannot consent to send back 
your baggage, it must go with me to Natchez where I expect you 
will join the detachment without delay. 

Should the General come to Massac, and accept your resigna- 
tion & you can detach some one for your baggage I will be found 
at this place as late as the 1st November next, & no longer — Make 
my respects if you please to Mrs. Pfeiffer and believe me Sir to 
be your friend — and obedt. 

Doctor George 1 Humble servant, 

PfeitTer J I. Guion Capt. &c. 


To Colonel O'Hara, Contractor. 

^ _. Fort Adams C. Bluffs 24 October 1797. 

Dear Sir, 

I had the pleasure on the 19th instant to receive your favour of 
the 24th of August from Pittsburgh. On the 3d Ultimo from 
this place I had a favorable conveyance and addressed a line to 
you, but as the way is long & communication precarious, I 
have enclosed you a copy of it as also of a short letter of advice 
Which I had written to the Secretary of War to the same effect . 
I have now enclosed to you a copy of an account for monies paid 
on your account which will be charged to you at the treasury 
office. I shall leave this place for Natchez about the first of the 
next Month, leaving at this place one Subaltern & thirty men with 
six Months provisions of every kind except Beef, and near!}' for 
the same time in this article: We have not wanted provisions by 
any means, and if the troops at every post in the United States 
have fared as well they have no cause to grumble. You may 
rest assured that 1 shall, at the same time that 1 see justice done 
to the troops under my command, take care of your interest. where 
it depends on me, equally as if it were my own. The Lads as 
you observe truly, who you senl as Commissaries were inex- 
perienced, but are now doing better than at first; particularly 
Mr. Quin, he has some life and industry— G a lb re at h has been sick 
for two months past, and will not be able to go with us but must 


follow "when stronger. When Magee will be with us I know 
not, as Mr. Toler the bearer passed him on the Oho above Lime- 
stone lying by, and from every account I have reason to fear, 
that the choice animal you were pleased to ship for me by him 
will suffer However this .cannot lessen the obligation I feel 
and am under to you for remembering me. I thank you for Peter, 
He is a true Porcupine, and is excellent to dissipate bile — Quin 
writes by this conveyance and will of course forward you a 
state of provisions on hand. By the earliest opportunity after 
my arrival at Xatchez you shall hear from me — Please men- 
tion me to Captain Turner, to whom I have not time to Write, 
and any other my friend in your quarter: and believe me in 
friendship to be your 

Colonel James O'Hara 1 Humble Servt. 

Contractor. J I. G. Captn. in U. S. Army. 

To Captain Z. Pike. 

^ _. Fort Adams C. Bluffs October 24th 1797. 

Dear Sir, 

Your two letters of the Sth & 12th instant, on the 19th were 
handed to me at one time — The Artillery soldier must have 
been subject to the master of the boat with Spanish provisions 
which delayed him. I am happy to hear that the General 
intends honoring you with a visit, I fancy him in view when at 
no greater distance than is between us. I am sorry that Doctor 
Pfeiirer could think of sacrificing his honor to his ease, or con- 
venience. He certainly will not, or I did not know him. "He 
"observes, you say, that his duty calling at opposite points it 
"is impracticable for him to execute both. & at least that 1 will 
"not aggravate his misfortune if not afford relief" — Had I been 
the author of any misfortune that has overtaken him, and then 
denied relief it \ < in : in my power, I should be justly chargeable 
with agravating it: But as it is, from commiserating the situa- 
tion of his family, and to calm the perturbation of mind in which 
I saw him, having myself steped beyond the bounds of my 
power to serve him, and to be charged with inhumanity, is, 


to give it no other name, downright childishness — Doctor Pfeiffer 
must unless General Wilkinson wills to the contrary, prepare 
to join this detachment without delay on the receipt of a let- 
ter I write to him by this conveyance — 

I am sorry my friend that you like ourselves have had so 
much sickness this summer — at one moment I had three-fourths 
of the detachment down, and this since Doctor. Pfeiffer left us, 
and McCoskry unable to attend, or administer the least med- 
icine, being extremely sick himself, in a letter from the Con- 
tractor, at Pittsburgh, dated the 24th of August; he mentions 
a boat dispatched with provisions for your post and my detach- 
ment; and also a Quarter of Madeira, in the charge of the boat 
master one Magee, intended for me; as I have heard that Magee 
was a careless loose character, I beg you to examine the boat, 
and situation of the Cask in question, and if a boat should be 
coming to me on which it would be more safe, be pleased to 
have it put on board. Make my respects to Mrs. Pike & to all 
the Gentlemen with you and be assured Sir, that I am 

Your friend & Obedient 
Mr. Toler & party are victualled Humble Servt. 

up to the 4th proximo inclusive — I. G. 

Captain Z. Pike 
C. of F. Massac. 

To Lieutenant Campbell. 

Camp at Chickasaw Bluffs Nov. 5th 1797. 
Sir, p 

After the repeated admonition given you by your Captain, 
and as many promises made by yourself to change your con- 
duct and abandon the most dissolute prostitute now with this 
detachment; but above all, the glaring disobedience of the 
11th Article of the standing general orders which forbids t M 
from keeping mistresses, and which you have for a long time 
past endeavoured to evade, that you should yesterday in the 
face of day, and presence of the soldiers of Fort Adams intro- 
duce her there, and in their Company be familiar, is truly aston- 

1 now positively forbid your having any further connexion 

. 58 

with this woman, on pain of arrest for disobedience of general 
orders, and ungentlemanly conduct: you will do well to reflect 
on your late behavior and speedily reform it, as you are not to 
expect the smallest relaxation on my part from the resolutions 
before mentioned. 

I am Sir, your Obedt. 
Lieutenant Joseph Campbell 1 Huml. Servt. 

of Artillerists & Engineers. J I. Guion Captain 


To Samuel Mitchell, Indian Agent. 1 

Fort Adams Chickasaw Bluffs Sth Novr. 1797. 

I had the pleasure a few days since to receive your letter of 
the 27th Ultimo from the encampment 15 miles West of Long 
Town; in which you inform me of your agency to the Choctaws 
and Chickasaws and ask my opinion on the Conduct necessary 
to be observed towards the Spanish Officers your neighbours — 
I assure you Sir, that I am but very slightly' versed in Indian 
Affairs; but agreeable to my own opinion, a plain open and 
upright conduct towards the Indians, never even remotely 
promising or holding up to their view any advantages which are 
not certain to be realized, I hold to be the best — Perhaps with 
the others it is proper in many cases to finesse, they are them- 
selves, at least where I have had communication with them, 
replete with dissimulation; your own good sense, I have no 
doubt, will be the best guide for you in managing any affairs 
with them. The Mountain leader, Wm, Colbert, and their 
people are well disposed, they have shown it this summer; 
But the Wolfs friend who I know to be in the Spanish Interest is 
not so. I have been here with my command from the 20th of 
July last, and obtained the consent of William Colbert his 
people & of the Browns in the tirst place, after of the Mountain 
Leader the King and their people to build or fortify & remain 
here while 1 pleased*. The Wolfs friend opposed tins at first, 
but was overruled and silenced by Wm. Colbert. I have built 

*The Mississippi Archives contain many letters and reports from 
Mitchell as Iiuli. mi Acrent. 


a Stockade Fort, and leave a garrison in it under the command 
of Joseph Campbell Lieutenant of Artillery and shall myself 
with the remainder of my Command leave this place for Natchez 
tomorrow, or the day after at the farthest — Mr. Campbell has 
directions to correspond with- you, and to make every commu- 
nication he may possess which relates to your office — I .have 
made enquiry respecting James Golden, but cannot learn that 
he is a deserter from any of the Regiments in the sendee of the 
United States; although he may be. Peter Johnson is a de- 
serter from my own Company; he left it when they were in 
garrison at Fort Massac. I inlisted him in 1792, in Albany & 
State of New York; and although he is a great villain he will 
not be hardy enough to deny these facts. He must be re- 
claimed as an American soldier. I beg you to continue your 
correspondence and communication to me at Natchez, and be 
assured of my acknowledgements in return. 

With much respect, Sir, I am 

your Obedt. Huml. Sen-ant, 
I. Guion Captain 

Commandg. the troops of the U. S. 

on the east side of the Mississippi 

Samuel Mitchell Esqr. 
I. Agent to the Choctaws. 


To Captain E. Beauregard. 
Wallnut Hills Mississippi December 1. 170" 

The Detachment of troops of the U. States under my Com- 
mand are in part destined to take possession of this post when 
abandoned by the troops of Ins Catholic Majesty: I have there- 
fore to request of you to inform me whether you are read}- to 
give possession of this post, or any part thereof, to the United 
States agreeably to the treaty between them and I Spanish 


Captain E. Beauregard 
Commanding the 
troops of His Catholic 
Majesty at the W. Hills &< 

With great regard, Sir, 
I have the honor to be Your Obedient 
and very Humble Sent. 

I. Guion Captain 
in the 3d Reqt. of (J. S. ,v Com- 
ing, their troops on the Miss- 


To Samuel Mitchell'. 

Natchez 29th December 1797. 

The Bearer a Chickasaw by the name of John, who claims 
compensation of the U. States for Services performed on the 
N. W. frontiers under General Wayne, how Well founded his 
pretensions are I cannot determine, but have referred him to 
you as the proper Officer to enquire; I wrote to you last from 
the Chickasaw Bluffs, on the Sth ultimo which place I left the 
day following and arrived here the 6th instant — a few days 
since I received a letter from the Secretary of War under date 
of the 29th of September in which he says "that Mr. Hawkins 
"has established Runners through the different Nations within 
"his jurisdiction; One of these will pass from the Chickasaws 
u & Chacktaws Nations once every three weeks to the Little 
"Turkey-Town and thence to Tellico in Tennesee and to Colonel 
"Gaithers headquarters on the Oconee. Mr. Hawkins has 
"appointed an Agent to the Chacktaws a Mr. Mitchell. You 
"will be pleased to obtain a knowledge of this Gentleman's Situ- 
ation and make arrangements with him to forward your Let- 
ters by these Runners" — 

Now Sir, be good enough to inform me when and where I 
may with safety send dispatches to you, to be forwarded in 
the above mentioned manner to Knoxville and Philadelphia — 
I have been confined by a violent inflammation in the head for 
more than Six weeks past, and am still indisposed or I would 
be more communicative — With due respect 

Sir, I am your 

Obedt. & very humbl. Servt. 
Samuel Mitchel Eqr. (Sigd) I. Guion Captain 

Agent at the Chocktaws. J in U. S. Army. 

To Captain Stephen Minor. 1 

c . Natchez Jan. 3d 1798. 


Your letter of Yesterdays date is now before me, in it you 

are pleased to observe, "that the Men of my Command being 

1 When Gayoso was made Governor of Louisiana Capt. Stephen Minor 
acted as Commandant at Natchez and Civil Governor until the evacua- 
tion of the Spaniards. 


"employed in making Fascines has an Appearance of fortifying, 
"and as you are intirely ignorant of any danger you are in, you 
"will be happy to be acquainted with the Causes of such prepa- 

I could with equal Candor to abundant Example afforded me 
reply; that what, you have call'cl fascines, are only so many 
Bundles of small twigs, that would as well serve the purposes 
of fuell as of fortifications: But I disdain to lurk behind Equivo- 
cation, and therefore frankly inform you that they are fascines 
intended solely for the purposes of defence ; As you might have 
readily infered, knowing as you do the exposed Situation of 
my Stores and troops in a naked Camp in this boisterous Cli- 
mate and inclement Season; after the repeated professions of 
friendship of your Governor General "of attending to what- 
ever might regard the Comfort of the troops of the United 
"States equal to that of the troops of the king his Master" — 
here then is a strong proof of his sincerity and desire to cherish 
and promote harmony between the two Nations — ■ 

That you are intirely ignorant of being in any Danger, I 
doubt not seeing that you are snug in Garrison, — But I am not 
so certain that my Camp is in perfect security, or that hostility 
to it is not meditated— 

You say also "that the Land in and about the Town being 
"the property of Individuals, you conceive it an Infringement 
"on their rights, to take any Wood or Timber oh' it without 
"their Consent" — I think Sir! I conceive the intention of these 
expressions, and that they do not flow from the sacred regard 
due to the Rights and Interests of Individuals — But should it 
be so, the Trespass is chargeable at Your own door; fullfill the 
treaty, evacuate the Garrison, and supercede the necessity of 
making more fascines — Remember to tell the Citizen? on whose 
Grounds we have so trespassed, and who have complained to 
you; that the United States never allow an In lividual to put 
up with the Loss of any property necessarily taken by their 
Officers ; • that on a Just and fair estimation of the Damage 
they will receive payment— I remain with regards 

Sir, Your obdt Sent. 
(Signd) Isaac Guion. 

Captain Stephen Minor. 


To Captain Stephen Minor. 
<-,. Natchez 6th January 1798. 

The Indisposition which I am suffering has prevented me from 
answering before this day your Letter of the 3d inst., and even 
now I can only take notice of part, and such as it is appears have 
resulted from misunderstanding the plain meaning of expressions 
contained in my Letter of the same date to you — 

Your first observation to prove the friendly disposition of 
Your Government to contribute to the Comfort of my Detach- 
ment when it should arrive at this place is the Offer you made of 
the Timber in the Kings Swamp to Lieut. Pope, to errect Barracks 
for our Accomodation — Next you notice Governor Gayoso's 
Offer of the Kings Buildings at Villa Gayoso, which you say is 
an Evidence of his real Desire ''of attending to whatever might 
"regard the Comfort of the Troops of the U. S. equal to that of 
"the troops of the king his Master." Next your offers as you say 
on my arrival of your contributing all in your power for my Con- 
veniency — 

Your offer of Timber in a Swamp on the opposite side of the 
River to a Detachment like that of Mr. Pope's proves no Dis- 
position to contribute or aid in erecting or providing accomoda- 
tions for our reception — but rather has an Air of exultation m 
Your independent Situation. 

Governor Gayoso's offer of Villa Gayoso had been received by 
me at the Chickasaw Bluffs, and my Answer to that Letter 
acknowledged before I arrived at this place — 

Your offers of contributing all in your power to our conven- 
iency, were so many Words of course — -You offered no one place 
or house and when I asked you in my Boat, whether Governor 
Gayoso had assigned, or 'directed any Quarters to be provided 
for my Detachment, you replied in the negative. 

You say that you ere candid in declaring your ignorance of 
any Danger that menaces either of us, and that you conceive 

my apprehensions of ho ■ , ced to my Camp groundless, 

and then draw a lengthy conclusion from what yourself had set 
up— Where do you find this apprehension of hostility in my 
Letter.' or why so strenuously endeavour to find : ense in 
our making a Camp coi llortable when Your n e is to con- 


tribute all in Ycnir power to that Comfort? and besides when you 
tell ns that you are very shortly to abandon the Country. I 
again assure you Sir, that nothing in the smallest Degree offensive 
is intended by our present Labour; that it is intended barely as 
a Cover for Ordnance, and Artillerists; that Sheds will be laid 
over it for that purpose, and that I will go as far as yourself in 
all things proper to maintain a reciprocity of good Offices, and a 
Good understanding between the two Nations. 

With true regard 
I am Sir 
Your Obedient Servt. 
Capt: Stephen Minor. Isaac Guion. 

To Governor Gayoso. 

. Natchez January 5th 179S. 

Sir, • J 

A severe undescribable inflamation, which assailed me in the 
head on the 20th of November last, has until now denied me the 
power, and deprived me of the pleasure of acknowledging the 
receipt of your Excellencies communication dated the 30th of 
October, with which I was honored on the 26th of November 
following, two days prior to my arrival at the Wallnut Hills. 
Your Excellency observes "'that in the same manner as the first 
"difficulties mentioned by Baron Carondolet to General Wilkin- 
son, were removed by the President of the United Stales, so 
"will those that unluckily ensued." I candidly confess my ignor- 
ance of those difficulties which unluckily ensued, unless your Ex- 
cellency alludes to the objection raised on your part, to the par- 
ticipation given by the treaty to the British in the navigation 
of the Mississippi; and which business I am informed is now in 
ministerial negociation: But which does no" offer the smallest 
obstacle to the fulfilment of the other parts of the treaty. 

Your Excellency will permit me to diner in opinion with you 
respecting the object of -Mr. Blounts affair, Hvhich you say mani- 
fested an attack against this province — If it appears manifesl to 
your Excellency it does not so to the Kxeaitneof the United 

l The William Blount conspiracy. 


States, as the reply of their Secretary of State to your Minister 
strongly evidences, which document is in my possession. 

Mr. Bkmnts affair, in my opinion, has not the least relation 
to the fulfilment or non-fulfilment of the treaty. — 

As I am better versed in the duties of a Camp; than the style 
or intrigues of a Court, I hope that your Excellency will put a 
period to a Correspondence, already become too lengthy, by 
unequivocally fixing the time when the garrisons of Natchez and 
Wallnut Hills will be withdrawn, and thus prevent my giving 
any offense by misconstruction, or uncourtly expressions in reply. 

With true Considerations of respect, 

I have the honor to be, 
His Excellency "] Your Excellencies 

Manl. Gayoso De Lemos I Most Obedient 

Govr. General of Humble Servant 

Louisiana and W. Florida. I. Guion &c. 

To Governor Gayoso. 

Natchez 29th January 1798. 

On the 24th I was honored with your Excellency's favour of 
the 18th instant from Orleans which should have been earlier 
acknowledged but for a continuation of indisposition. 

Whatever may have been the motives for the delay that has 
occasioned so much discussion, or from whence they originated, 
is now, to me quite immaterial: it is enough that the operations 
for abandoning the posts and for fulfiling in every other part the 
treaty have commenced ; and provided they are continued with 
industry adequate to compleat them in due time, I have no 
doubt but what has passed will soon be forgotten as a reciproc- 
ity of interest will beget through mutual intercourse the like 
Two Galleys v, ;'' : ' >ops and military stores passed down from 
the Hills yesterday, this is what I men byth Lencement 

of that desireable object -As your Excellency must be more 
accurately informed <■: tl c real disposition of the Indians through 
whose Country the line ol demarcation will pre! tbh pass, you 


are in consequence the best judge of the strength of escort neces- 
sary (if any) that should attend the Commissioners and Survey- 
ors, and therefore I request your opinion on this subject — The 
observations suggested by your Excellency of running the line 
through the settled part of the country, and on all rivers and 
water courses of magnitude to the rivers mentioned in the 
treaty are certainly just as they relate to facility and aecon- 
omy for the moment; But would not this produce future con- 
tention & expence? The determination on this point will in a 
great degree govern, in the strength of the guards, the quantity 
and mode of furnishing provisions necessary to the comple- 
tion of this business — 

I shall expect your Excellencys ultimate decision, on every- 
thing that relates to our common consent as expressed in the 
third Article of the treaty of friendship, limits and navigation, 
either by letter to me, or power delegated to Major Minor, that 
the business may be entered upon without further delay — ■ 

I have the honor to be with great consideration of respect, 

Your Excellency's 
Most Obedt. & very huml. Servt. 
I. Guion Captain in 
the Army of the U. S. & Commg. 
their troops, in this quarter. 
His Excellency 

Manuel Gayoso De Lemos > 

B. Genl. & Commr. in Chief in Louisiana & W. F. | 

To Samuel Mitchell. 

Natchez February 3d 179S. 

Your favour of the 5th Ultimo by Poushamastubby 1 came to 

hand on the 30th following, and tomorrow he purposes to return. 

Mr. Ellicott has been premature in writing as he did respecting 

supplies, and as he is so far the cause of Indian i lity he 

should bear the trouble when they come in here, but winch he 

is not always willing to do: I have no doubt but that supplies 

l A Choctaw chief. 

• 66 

will be sent for the Chocktaws this spring or summer following, 
yet much trouble is avoided by not holding any thing up to 
view untill within reach — I yesterday received from the Com- 
mander in Chief of the U. States army a talk and belt from the 
Chippewas, OttaWas, and Puttawattamies to the Chickasaws 
& Chocktaws nations. It is a sensible address, and if well ren- 
dered, by an honest intelligent interpreter, will certainly pro- 
duce great good; and be the means of giving you ease, as it 
Will consequence among them. I shall endeavor to find a 
trusty Clever fellow by whom I will send it to you to be after- 
Wards sent to the Chickasaws. I hope your situation will now 
become more agreeable and less critical, as the Spanish Gov- 
ernment is about to expire at this place; their influence will 
sensibly diminish with the Indians who have never been their 
very zealous friends — The report of our being stopped at the 
Hills is of a piece with all other vague policy used at that time 
to endeavour to raise their importance, no matter by what 
means. These reports are now at an end, as the evacuation of the 
Wallnut Hills has commenced, and I have reason to believe, 
that in month from this time, they will be away bag and bag- 
gage from this place also when the operation for running the 
line will no doubt commence — I wrote to you on the 29th of 
December by a Chickasaw, & requested you to inform me how 
or where, I could send dispatches to you to be forwarded to 
Philadelphia as therein pointed out. I beg your attention to 
that business if the letter has got safe to hand. 

I wish you to continue your communications, as I shall in 
every instance where any thing presents of public imports — 

With much regard 
I am Sir, Your 
Saml. Mitchell Esqr. 1 Obedient Huml. Servt. 

Agent to the Chocktaws. J Isaac Guiun. 

To Samuel Mitchell. 

Natchez, February ISih 170S. 
Your letter of the 10th Ultimo from the Chickasaws I re- 

• 67 

ceived the 11th instant by a Mr. John Frazier a half Chickasaw, 
related to Mr. Foy to whom yon had given it in charge. And 
to day by Mr. Roberts your letter from the Choctaws, and which 
I suppose you misdated as it is under that of the 3d Ultimo: 
I am happy to hear that you are likely to remain undisturbed 
among that people, who I began to fear were about to be troub- 
lesome; that the Wolfs friend should endeavour to create dis- 
sension and discord between you and them is not surprising, 
as he is in Spanish pay, and this is all he can do for them, his 
own nation begin to know him well, and I think will not listen 
to him. I Wrote to you on the 3d instant by Poushamastubby 
who left this place in Company of a Captain John, son to Red 
Shoes a Chief who died at this place, and to this John I made 
presents to the amount of sixteen dollars besides provisions for 
himself and people to enable them to reach their Towns; but 
to my surprise six days after I found that Capt. John was still 
lurking about this place, which induced me to believe that the 
other fellow was not far from him — Common fame says that 
the Indians of the six towns are gone to Orleans for Powder &c 
and that they intend to disturb the operations "of marking the 
line — It is certainly true that many are now in the settled part 
of this district, and are pointing their march towards Orleans, 
perhaps following the Ci devant Duke of that House who with 
two brothers and a Marquis of Mountjoye left this place on 
tuesday last the 13th and are I believe on business not friendly 
to the U. S. The talk and belt mentioned in my letter by 
Poushamastubby I have not sent you yet; as I have not found 
a person in whom I can place sufficient confidence, without I 
send an Officer and which I fancy will be the case and in a few 
days, by whom I shall likewise forward my dispatches to you, 
to send forward by the most safe and expeditious route — The 
evacuation goes on slowly, but I think it a thing certain. 
Samuel Mitchell Esqr. 1 With much respect, 

I. Agent for the U. S. \ I am Sir, your Obedt. 

To the Choctaws. Iluml. Sent. I. Guii n 


To the Secretary of War. 

Natchez February 25th 179S. To G. W. 

On the ISth of December last, twelve days after my arrival at 
this place, I was honored with your several communications of 
the 22d and 29th of September from the vicinity of Downings- 
town. Agreeable to the intention, which I had the honor to 
announce to you in my letter of the 22d of October from the 
Chickasaw Bluffs, I left that place on the 9th of November, 
having garrisoned Fort Adams with one Subaltern and thirty 
non-Commissioned and privates, provisions for six months, 
and stores in proportion to the- strength of the Detachment, 
and notwithstanding the lowness of the water and difficulty and 
hazard of the descent, in that state, of the river, arrived with 
all my boats in good order at this place on the 6th of Decem- 
ber following. The ill state of health in which I have been for 
more than three months, and from which I have not yet recov- 
ered, and the difficulty of communicating, owing to the unsettled 
aspect of affairs in the Indian nations, as the Secretary will 
observe by the correspondence with Mr. Mitchell, added to the 
daily expectation of having it in my power to declare the evacu- 
ation of the posts in the territory of the United States in this 
quarter, have all conspired to procrastinate my communica- 
tion. By the correspondence with the Spanish Officers, copies 
of which are enclosed, you will be able to ascertain the state 
of the operations of which they relate. The place of my en- 
campment, and the redoubt alluded to in the letters between 
Captain Minor and myself, is the spot on which Mr. Ellicott 1 
had his tent when he first came to this place, & is about one 
thousand yards from their fort; this little Field work has con- 
tributed much to the operations that are now going on, and 
Which will beyond doubt, be compleated in the course of the 
next month. Although Governor Gayoso does not say in what 
manner the works will be left at the Wallnut Hills and this 
place, yet he lias directed Captain Minor to assure me thai all 
the buildings eve will be left m the same state as when in 'their 

1 Andrew Ellicott, Commissioner of Cnited States to determine the 



occupancy. The fort at this place is in a ruinous condition, 
and was at first very badly planed, being a square without 
lines of defence for the faces; and has little command of the 
river; I should recommend a position below and near to the 
line. The inhabitants of, this country are very anxious for 
the establishment of some government from the executive of 
the United States they are critically situated, and I hope have 
had the consideration of the government. The Spanish post 
nearest to the line, & where the stores and troops- that have 
been withdrawn from the Hills are sent to, is at a small river 
called Baton rouge about one hundred miles below the line; 
it is contemplated I am informed, to build extensive works at 
that place, and place a strong Garrison in them, but all their 
military force now in this quarter is not more than six hundred 
men, and by no means a formidable people. Two days ago I 
received a letter from Major Kersey dated the 11th instant at 
Fort Adams, where he arrived with two Companies of the third 
Regiment on the 9th. The troops of my detachment are much 
in Want of Clothing, especially the summer or light articles, 
Linen short Coats would be useful in this climate, the summer 
heat being so intense as to sicken a soldier doing duty in woolen 
clothes; The mercury is now at 74° by a Thermometer on 
Fahrenheits scale and has been up to 7S° only three days past. 

With the most perfect respect, 
I have the honor to be, Sir, 
Your Obedient Humble 
The Honorable 1 Servant 

The Secretary of War. J I. Guion Captain &c. 

To Samuel Mitchell. 

Natchez February 26th 179S. 

In my letter of the ISth instant by Mr. Roberl [ i • 

tioned the probability of my sending an Officer with the talk 

and belt, and my dispatches for the War Office, and now do so 

by Lieutenant Pope who will hand you this; he is accompanied 

by General Mathews, formerly Governor of Georgia, and a Mr. 

70 . 

Freeman one of the gentlemen employed by our government 
to run the line between us and the Spaniards — Roberts seems 
anxious to be employed to carry letters between us, if you 
know him and think him faithful you can get him, I believe, 
on good terms. Can't you prevail on some of your leading 
men in the Chactaws to make a visit to Philadelphia ; depend- 
on it more good would result from it than from fifty thousand 
dollars bestowed in presents in this country: and if Wolfs 
friend could be prevailed on to that effect he would return a 
convert. They have no Idea of the consequence of the United 
States, and most of them having seen Orleans they conceive it 
to contain more riches than the whole world beside. You 
mention the want of supplies to W T in them from the Spanish 
interest, whether they will come this spring for them or not 
I am uninformed ; but I know it was contemplated last year 
to give them some. Major William Kersey has got to Fort 
Adams, and commands there, for the current news I refer you 
to Mr. Pope & his companion. 

With much respect 
Sir, I am your Obedt. 
Samuel Mitchell & very huml. Servt. 

Esqr. I. G. 

To Lieutenant Pope. 

„. Natchez February 28th 179S. 


You will proceed without delay to Mr. Brockesses on the 
Boyau Pierre, where you will find Mr. Isaac Fife, and with 
whom as your guide you will continue with all diligence your 
route to the Chactaw nation ; and deliver to Mr. Samuel Mitchell 
tiic letter for him & the talk and belt, as likewise my packet 
addressed to the See re tar}- of War; all of which are now in 
your charge: You will remain no longer there than time suffi- 
cient to refresh yourself and Morses, when you will return to 

• 71 

this place with the best expedition, and report the nature of 

your journey — 

With respect, Sir, 
I am your Obedt. 

Lieutenant Pope. Huml. Servt. 

I. G. 

To Major William Kersey, 1 

. Natchez March 12 179S. 


Major Freeman has informed me that you are destined for 
the Wallnut Hills, and that is probable you are now at that 
place. An arrangement has been made and agreed on between 
the Governor here and myself that all the Kings or public build- 
ings without the Forts or Redoubts, and exclusive of Block 
houses which are for defence should be estimated or appraised 
as well at the Wallnut Hills as at this and other places in this 
district. To this effect one or more persons are to be chosen 
on each side whose opinion or evaluation will be committed to 
writing and be signed by them respectively which is to have 
no other binding force than to serve as memorandums untill 
collected and digested ; when they are to be sent to our respect- 
ive governments, in order to obviate and remove difficulties 
respecting that object. Now Sir, will you please to direct such 
an estimation to be made specifying the particular building and 
its value, and I would recommend that quadruplicates of the 
business be made, which if you please to have transmitted here 
as soon after as possible, will expedite in the evacuation of this 
post. I believe there are not more than two. or three build- 
ings at most, that thus come within the agreement; an Hos- 
pital, Store Sc Bake House. The private buildings, owned by 
whom they may have no title to the ground but may be con- 
sidered as locum tenens. Major Freeman will leave I 
tomorrow for Orleans; I have understood from him thai the 
Troops immediately under your command are much in arrear 
of pay, and am directed by the Secretary of War to obtain 

J An officer of the Continental Army (N. J.), died March 21, L8< 0. 


money on bills to pay them, as well as those directly under 
my own Command. Bills are gone to Orleans for this purpose, 
and so soon as the money arrives I shall apprise you of it, as 
well as of every occurrence or circumstance which may relate 
to our common interest, and that of our Country. 

Please to make my respects to the Gentlemen with you in 
general, but more especially to my old friends Capts. Richard & 
Wade and be assured Sir, that I am yr. friend 

& Obedient, Humble 
Major Wm. Kersey 1 I. Guion Captn. in the 3d 

By Maj. Minors courier. J Regt. of the U.S. 

To Captain Hcth. 

Natchez 12 March 179S. 

You have in charge three sets of Bills of exchange on the Secre- 
tary of War in favor of Saml. P. & James Moore Merchants 
of N r ew Orleans, who by a Copy of Saml. P. Moores letter of the 
15 Ultimo has agreed to negociate them at 5 pr. Cent above par. 
This of course makes the sum he is to furnish you with amount 
to 9,450 Dollars, which you will make arrangements with him 
to have delivered to me safely at this place as early as possible; 
as you know the arrears in which the troops are I need not be 
more diffuse to you on this part of the business — It will be neces- 
sary for you to have some surety, if the money for all the bills 
should not be ready, or otherwise only deliver one or more sets 
agreeably thereto this however I confide to your own prudence 
& discernment when on the Spot — If to bring part you should 
find it necessary to purchase one or more pack Horses yon . re 
hereby authorized so to do — Wishing you much pie;. sure & 
happiness, I am Sir your friend 

Captn. Hcth | & Obedt. Hum!.. S< 

of the 3d Regt./ I. G. 


(Omitted in its place) • ( duplicate by 

\ Butler 

c . Natchez February 25th 179.8. 


Agreeable to my intentions as mentioned to your Excel- 
lency in my letter from the Bluffs of the 23d of October last, I 
left that place on the 9th of November having Garrisoned Fort 
Adams with one Subaltern & thirty non Commissioned & pri- 
vates, supplied with provisions for six months and other Stores 
in proportion to the strength of the detachment: & notwith- 
standing the extreme lowness of the water and difficulty & 
hazard of the descent in that state of the river arrived with all 
my boats in good order on. the 6th of December at this place. 

To Major Constant Freeman. 1 

~ , r . Natchez March 27th 1798. 

Dear Major 

Should this find you in N. Orleans it will be handed to you 
by a Mr. Stewart Wilkins from Kentucky and brother to our 
Q. M. General, he left the Chickasaw Bluffs on the 14th instant 
where Captain Pierce had been thirteen days, and Major Kersey 
had not yet moved and I have reason to believe that he is not 
yet arrived at the Wallnut Hills which place was evacuated on 
the night of the 23d and Friday next the 30th is the day fixed 
for the same operation to take place here. The express who 
carried your letter to the Wallnut Hills the 8th instant is still 
at that place, and with seven or eight other Americans there, 
are keeping that place untill Kerseys arrival; what can have 
delayed him so long is to me inconceivable. The delinquency 
of our Contractor in the article of flour has obliged me to ' . •■. .- 
purchased for his account the flour Mr. Wilkins brought to this 
place at the rate of 12 & 14 dollars per barrel, I have now an 
ample supply for six months— I hope your descenl proved agree- 
able and that you may rind a comfortable and sate pass. 
Georgia, and after a speedy and happy interview with the object 

*An officer of the Continental Army, died Fel ruary 27, LS24. 


of your esteem, for whom I have abundant respect being the 
so intimate connexion of my friend — God keep you in his Holy 

Yours sincerely 
& ever 
Major Constant Freeman. I. G. 

To General Wilkinson. (Duplicate 

by Butler) 

Natchez March 30th 1798. 

I have the honor to announce to your Excellency the evacua- 
tion of the posts of Wallnut Hills and Natchez by the troops of 
his Catholic Majesty — That of the lirst took place on the night 
of the 23d instant and last night they withdrew in like manner 
from here. I have put a small guard in this post & the flag of 
the U. States now is waving over the rampart — Major Kersey 
who has orders from the Secretary of War to take Command 
at the Wallnut Hills has not yet arrived there on the 24th when 
I last heard from that place; and it was in the possession of an 
express I had sent to him and seven more American Citizens. In 
two or three days hence I shall expedite a Courier with all the 
papers of my transactions of the winter to your Excellency, 
which together with the precariousness of this conveyance pre- 
vents me from being more explicit; Major Freeman arrived here 
on the 7th instant, and by him I had the honor to receive your 
Excellency's communications. With the most perfect respect, 
and suffer me to add esteem, I have the honor to be 

Y ou r E xc ellen c y ' s 
His Excellency very Obedient, Humble Servt. 

General Wilkinson, i I. Guion. 


To Daniel Clark, of New Orleans. 1 

Natchez 3d April 179S. 

On the 29th Ultimo by your brother Mr. Richard Clark I had 
the pleasure to receive your favor of the 19th of the same, 
together "with three thousand Dollars — The obliging manner' in 
which you have been pleased to act in this business, demands 
my warmest acknowledgments and thanks, which be pleased 
Sir to accept — 'I shall according to the proposals made known 
by Major Minors letter rest perfectly satisfied, and shall in all 
transactions of this or any other nature to be done at Orleans 
for me, consider you my agent — You will now receive by the 
hands of your brother Mr. Richard Clark five sets of bills of 
exchange of two thousand dollars each, accompanied with let- 
ters of advice agreeably to your request — If I am continued in 
command at this post, and I have no reason to doubt it, a similar 
sum will be soon wanted, of which you shall have timely notice — 
I have your Brothers receipt for the bills to be delivered to you, 
and have given him one for the Cash received — To him I will 
refer you for the Current Occurrences of the Day in this quarter; 
and with much personal respect and esteem remain Dear Sir, 

Your very Obedient 
Daniel Clark Junr. Esqr. ) & most Humble Servt. 

Merchant N. Orleans. J I. Guion Captn. &c 

To Major William Kersey. 

Natchez April 12th 179S. 

Your letter of the 4th by Wilson with the enclosures I re- 
ceived on the 7th and yesterday by Captain Wade that of the 
9th instant with sundry Muster Rolls and other p. per 
would have been regular to have accompanied the Must* rs with 
pay and receipt pay rolls; for the want of which I shall now only 
be able to furnish Captain Wade with a sum on account, a 
ing two Months pay untill the documents are thus arranged 
and which is conformable to my instructions from the Secretary 

l A nephew of Daniel Clark, a prominent Irish citizen ol the 

sippi Territory. 


of War. When however the papers are thus arranged and 
sent to me, I will pay them up for the last year — I am sorry to 
find that you are so destitute of medicine, and physicians; and 
that it is, so little in my power at this moment to assist you with 
either the one or the other — Doctor McCoskry is on furlough, 
by permission of the Commander in Chief, to whom he had 
written & offered his resignation if it should not have been 
granted him. He left this place the 13th Ultimo, & new Orleans 
on the 1st instant in a Ship for New York. Medicine for the 
troops, I had written for last autumn, and what we now make 
use of is picked up where we can find it in this place; anticipat- 
ing however your situation in this particular, I had engaged a 
Doctor Dorsey to attend the detachment at the W. Hills on 
the appointments of a Surgeons Mate; untill the pleasure of the 
Executive should be known; he is now at New Orleans, and may 
be expected here in ten days — It is to be presumed that Mr. 
Jones will bring medicine with him, but if this should not be 
the case, and that none should arrive in this month, I will make 
arrangements to have a supply put up at New Orleans and 
sent to you as soon after as possible — I wdsh that the detachment 
I left at Fort Adams had been ordered to join their Command, 
keeping them from their companies perplexes the accounts 
and is repugnant to the Generals orders and instructions. The 
men left here by Major Freeman will return with Captain Wade 
in three days hence, and I hope it may then meet your views 
to send to their Command those you have from Fort Adams — 
The information you received of my bringing two Garrison flags 
with me is incorrect ; It is true that I had a General order for 
two to be made at Fort Washington, and put up by the Or. Mr. 
But as every underling in that department will disobey or 
evade General orders, two were made but only one packed 
up — This Lieut. Campbell could have told you as he knew that 
the Hag left at Fort Adams, was made by m; tions at 

the Chickasaw Bluffs. With great respect, 

Sir. I am your very 01 >< i ' 

& most Huml. Servt. 
I. G. 
One Corpl. & 7 men of Capt. Pikes Compy are with Mr. Mitchell 
who will hand you this they are victualled to the 17th instant 
inclusive. Major Win. Kersey Coming, at \V. Hills. 


To the Secretary oj War. 
s . Natchez April 19th, 179S. 

Your communications by Major Freeman were handed to me 
by that Gentleman on the 7th Ultimo — and a few days after he 
left this place for New Orleans I had the honor to write to you 
on the 25th of February and at the same time forward by the 
same conveyance (which I forbear to name) copies of all my 
correspondence to that date which I hope came safe to your 

I have now the satisfaction to announce the evacuation of the 
posts of Wallnut Hills and Natchez, by the troops of Spain. The 
first took place on the night of the 23d and that of the latter on 
the night of the 29th Ultimo — The buildings and works were 
left in the same state as when occupied by the troops of his 
Catholic Majesty — As I had reason to believe from Major Free- 
mans report, that Major Kersey would shortly after that time 
be with his command at the Wallnut Hills and in conformity 
to your instructions that in certain cases I should take no notice 
of that place, I only sent an express with a letter to Major 
Kersey a copy of which is enclosed — Contrary to my hopes 
Major Kersey did not arrive there before the 2d instant, yet by 
the attention of my express & of a few well disposed inhabitants 
the works and buildings were preserved from destruction; some 
of the locks & hinges and some plank excepted — The troops are 
much in want of Clothing, particularly my Company which 
having been many years detached have been less regularly 
supplied, and of that more destroyed by an over share of labour 
on public works than the others — Medical aid and medicine 
we are likewise very deficient in — You will see that Doctor 
McCoskry is on furlough and the steps I have taken to supply 
his place until the pleasure of the executive of the United St; t< - 
on that business may be known; it is indispensably necessary 
that some one physician should be at the Wallnyt Hills, as it is 
considered an unhealthy spot, or I ■! ould not have taken it upon 
me to make an engagement such as that with Doctor Dorsey— 
I have in several instances been obliged to make advances to 
the Contractors agent for supplies of provisions for the troops, 
and on the 2Sth Ultimo drew on the Secretary of War in 


of Stewart Wilkins for 2434 Dollars to be charged to James 
O'Hara at the treasury for flour purchased for the troops — 
agreeably to your instructions and power contained in your 
letter of the 16th of October received by Major Freeman, have 
drawn on the Secretary of War to the amount of 15,086 Dollars. 
In favour of Danl. Clark for 10,000— In favour of Saml. C. 
Young for 3,000 — In favor of Jesse & Abijah Hunt 1 for SSI 
Dollars, these three summs for bounty & pay of the troops — and 
in favor of Robert & Geo. Cochrane for 1205 98-100 for the 
Or. Mr. Genls. department making as first stated in the whole 
the sum of fifteen thousand and eighty dollars — Captain Wade 
is now here from the W. Hills to receive the pay &c. for the 
troops at that post — The Indians are very importunate and 
desirous to know when any supplies will be sent for them, I 
have never ventured to declare any period, but 'till the Spanish 
troops were all below the limits of the United States as well 
from a post they still have on the Tombigbee as elsewhere; 
gave them little hopes of receiving any thing more than a little 
provisions — ■ 

With the utmost respect 
James McHenry Sir, I am your Obedt. 

The Honorable the > and very Humble 

Secretary of War U.S. J Servt. I. Guion Capt. 

Duplicate of this the 13th of June By Mitchells post. 

To Major William Kersey. 

Natchez April 24th 1708. 

Your letter of the 18th instant by a Mr. Dickey I received on 
the 20th — Captain Wade will explain to you what you could 
not construe in my letter of the 12th and as a proof of the ne- 
cessity of such papers in the payment of troops I have quoted 
for your satisfaction that p; ri of the letter from the Honorable 
the Secretary of War which relates to the bu>incss in question — 
"you will be pleased to consider yourself also authorized to 

l Merchants <>i Natchez. Abijah Hunt was killed June S, 1S11, in a 
duel with George Pi indexter. 


"draw for the amount of the pay of the Garrison at Wallnut 
''Hills, and to have the payment made to the troops there 
"tinder the usual & established forms" — Captain Wade receives 
1,553 Dollars on account as the average of three months pay to 
the non Commd. and privates of Captain Pierces, Captain Rich- 
ards & his own Companies; and S60 Dollars for the Officers, all 
agreeably to the enclosed Statement — your draught in favour 
of Dickey for twenty Dollars for apprehending the two Desert- 
ers from Captain Lewis's Company was paid as soon as pre- 
sented — Doctor Dorsey has not yet returned from' Orleans, 
What can detain him I cannot conjecture; when he comes he 
will be directed to put up some medicine and Hospital Stores 
& to join you without delay — Captain "Wade takes with him the 
men left here by Major Freeman all but one, who deserted on 
the 30th Ult: enclosed is a list of their names, and of the Com- 
panies to which they belong — Captain Demler joins with the 
other Gentlemen of the Detachment in respects to you & the 
Gentlemen with you, & none more than Sir, 
Major Wm. Kersey | Your Obedt. 

Commg. at the W. > Huml. Servant 

Hills. J I. Guion. 

N. B. The pay receipt Rolls as well for the money now sent 
by Captain Wade, as for the other months to complete the last 
year will be signed, and witnessed where the man does not write 
his name, and be transmitted by the Officer you may think 
proper to send. I. G. 

I omitted mentioning before, our having apprehended James 
Green a Deserter from Captain Richards Company— he has 
been tried by a General Court Martial, and sentenced to receive 
one hundred lashes at four different times, to be branded in 
the forehead with the letter D. and be drummed out of the 
Arm)', which sentence is now in execution. 
April 24, 179S. I. Guion, Captain. 

Major Kersey. 


To Major William Kersey. 

Sir Natchez, April 29th 10 at night 1798. 

I Wrote to you on the 24th by Captain Wade, but who did not 
leave this place till yesterday — Doctor Dorsey who I named to 
you in two of my letters antecedent to this, arrived this even- 
ing from Orleans and sets off in the same boat tomorrow to 
ascend the river as far as Xew Madrid where his family at present 
reside — He wishes to have them with him at the Wallnut Hills, 
and indeed this was a primary object with him in our agree- 
ment to which I acceded — you will be able to learn from him- 
self how long he will be absent, and give your consent accord- 
ingly, but I have no doubt of your willingness to accord him 
the time requisite to effect his business — As he sets off early 
tomorrow, I shall not by him be able to send you any medicine, 
be pleased Sir, to direct an estimate of such Articles as will be 
necessary for the troops, & I will have them procured from X. 
Orleans and sent to you as soon as possible — ■ 

With respect & friendship 
I am your Obedient and 
Major Wm. Kersey. very Humbl. Servt. 

I. Guion. 

To General Wilkinson. ' 

Natchez, Mav 5th 179S. 

Your Excellence's communication of the 10th Ultimo by 

Lieutenant Butler I had the honor to receive yesterday by the 

hand of that Gentleman, owin^ to many reasons the most 

powerful one, the almost deprivation of" sight, which complaint 

remained with me for more than three months after my arrival 

here, I have not written to your Excellency so often as I - 

have otherwise done; namely on the 25th oi February & 30th 

of March. I duly received your communication by the Mar- 

quiss of Mountjoye on the 11th of February, those by Major 

Freeman on the 7th of March, by Mr. T. Jones on the 12th of 

April, and by Mr. Burnet cm the 27th following -We left the 


Chickasaw Bluffs, as your Excellency will see by my letter of 
the 25th of February, on the 9th of November and arrived here 
the 6th of December. I halted two days at the Wallnut Hills 
to procure Beef for the detachment, of which by the barbarous 
stupidity of my Commissary we Were in want; & of which I 
got a Supply — Although I was scarcely able to bear the light, 
and in torture with an inflamation in the head Iwhich seemed 
to baffle skill to subdue, I made out to scrawl to the Captain 
Commandant Elias Beauregard a demand agreeably to the 
Copy herewith enclosed, his answer was returned in Spanish 
and badly rendered by a Frenchman ; but sufficiently intelli- 
gible for me to understand, that he had no orders of that kind 
from the Governor General, & which I knew before I made the 
demand — This place their then so much boasted of impreg- 
nable post, could have been carried by my detachment in fifteen 
minutes — they behaved however politely, and prepared their 
old rusty ordnance to return a salute which they expected 
would be offered to them, but this I would not consent to give 
them as they were in the territory of the United States — noth- 
ing material after this occurred 'till Captain Minors letter of 
the 2d of January, what followed, copies of all this corerspond- 
ence is herewith enclosed — Captain Demler with his Company 
occupies the Fort, and the infantry continue in their former 
position encamped near the redoubt — indeed there is no place 
to put them in that miserable Fort, mouldering and tumbling 
on every side. Ellicott went from here the 9th Ultimo to 
Willings Boyau as it is called, a little below Mr. Daniel Clarks 
where he now is doing little, or nothing; he has very much les- 
sened himself and sullied the Commission given him, by his 
conduct before and since his arrival here — I did not believe it 
'till I saw it, and supposed it calumny — What! does such a 
reptile as Burnet brand Mr. Daniel Clark with being in Spanish 
interest? This is of a piece with the barbarous ignorance & \\ ick- 

edness of old G ne — They are neither of any account here 

amongst the better kind of the community Fi n went 

from here on the loth of March and remained in N'ew Orleans 
till the ISth of April when he left that place in Company of 
Colonel Charles Howard by the Lakes tor Pensacola — Doctor 
McCoskry went on furlough the 1 1th of March, and left Mew 



Orleans on the 7th of April for New York in the Ship Argus — 
Since the Spanish troops withdrew from here, I am constantly 
perplexed with all kinds of business, complaints for abuse, 
slander, arrest for debts, thefts, and the whole Catalogue of 
vexations, and happy am I to find that a government for this 
country has been formed by the General Government — The re- 
cent infiamation which incomoded me in the head, has not yet 
left my eyes, your Excellency must therefore be so indulgent as 
to pardon the manner of this letter — Captains Minor & Vidall 
are still here, the first is an American (at heart). The latter 
says he is a Consul — I say he is? — perhaps so — A friend of mine 
who I never saw, but being dear to a friend of mine makes him 
one to me, is expected here in June or July, he has lately 
written from the remote country where he is, to a friend 
below, that he is likely to succeed to his wishes — 

With the truest respect 
and most perfect esteem, Sir, 
I have the honor to be your Excelly. 
very Obedient & most huml. Servt. 
I. Gn. 
His Excelly. 

Genl. Wilkinson, Commr. in chief 
of the Army of the U. S. 

To Major William Kersey. 

Natchez May 5th 179S. 

Your letter of the 3d by Lieutenant Butler I received yester- 
day evening at six o'clock— I observe that the Commander in 
chief did not conceive that the Spanish troops had withdrawn 
from this post, and his orders are applicable to existin; 
cumstances in such c:ise — I can only inform you that I know of 
no troops of Spain remaining in tins district v< ithin the Hmi1 
the U. S., except only Captain Stepen Minor, and Captain 
Joseph Vidall; the first of the Army, the latter of Militia, and 
said to possess a Consular appointment for this district. Lieu- 
tenant Butler is somewhat indisposed, no doubt owing to his 


indefatigable industry in descending from Head Quarters to 
this place, and requires a little rest he will leave here tomorrow 
or the day after at farthest. Captain Wade I expect is now 
with you, if no accident has armed to retard him in his asscent, 
as he left this place on the evening of the 28th Ultimo, and was 
at the Boyau Pierre on the morning of the 2d. With my re- 
spects to the Gentlemen of your Command, 

I am your Obedient 
Humble Servt. 
I. Guion. 
Major Wm. Kersey. 

To Mr. Daniel Clark. 

Natchez May 5th 179S. 

Your letter of the 3d Ultimo & two thousand dollars by 
Monsr. Auguste Chauteau I duly received on the ISth follow- 
ing. A variety of occupations constantly crowding on me had 
so perplexed my mind that it had escaped me, or the favor 
should have been earlier acknowledged — I hope your brother 
Richard arrived safe at Orleans and with him the Bills, in man- 
ner as you mentioned for ten thousand dollars— I reciprocate 
your congratulations on the withdrawing of the Spaniards, 
& with you wish that the possession of this Country may ensure 
tranquility to the inhabitants, and also that it may extend the 
benefits of a liberal commerce between our Citizens above, and 
the mercantile world in your quarter — 

With much esteem 
Sir, I am your Obedient 
Mr. Daniel Clark Junr. ] & very humble Servt. 

Merchant X. Orleans. J . I. Gn. 

To Quarter Master Craig. 

Natchez Mav Oth 179S. 

Your letter of the 7th of March covering 'v. »f In- 

dian presents, and the packages as therein mentioned, by Mr. 



Daniel Burnet I received of him on the 20th of April — This 
goes by Mr. Francis Jones and with him Wilson who you sent 
last December. Mr. Jones being in the same Department will 
from my Or. Mr. be able to afford you a state of his accounts as 
they stand here— Be pleased Sir, to make a tender of my respects 
to General Sc Colonel Neville & to your Lady. 

With regard, Sir, 

I am your Obedt. 

& Huml. Servt. 
Isaac Craig Esq. I. Guion. 

D. Q. M. G. 

To Mr. James O'Hara. 

~ . • Natchez May 9th 1798. 

Dear Sir, 

On the 27th Ult. by Mr. Danl. Burnet 1 I had the pleasure to 
receive your favour of the 7th of March — I am surprised at the 
delay of Mr. Toler in asscending to Pittsburgh last fall & winter 
— McGee got to the Chickasaw Bluffs some time in January, 
and the Cask of Wine by him (what remained of it) I received 
by Lieutenant Bowyer on the 2d of February— Edward O'Hara 
arrived here about the 12th Ultimo, but as Quin has charge of 
your stores it is only from outdoor report that I heard of some 
neglect in him, and perhaps waste of your property, coming 
down — Mr. Lynn arrived at the same time, he Wrecked his 
boat loaded with merchandize and informed me that the two 
Casks of Wine and Brandy were lost with a number of dry 
goods in trunks cvc. 

I have been her : :< my detachment since the 6th of D< 
ber last, and did shortly after my arrival get a Copy of the 
Contract between I In -'• ■ . Cochrans & yourself, and finding 
that it continued oi i; : Isi ot September L797 and that it 

had expired, I prop* ' to Mr Quin to purchase beef or pork 
for your Account on i ; own I red it, as 1 found that il could be 
done at a much better rate, and we be better supplied- B< :. 
Cornfed at 3 1 - ' }i liars and the best of pork at four Dollars 

*A prominent I : ••:•• i ■ ' n .1 an I carl 1 of Missis- 

sippi history. 


the Ct. Wt. But I fear the Business was anticipated and your 
man nursed, & for this reason, 1 droped the plan — Yet I am 
since sorry that I did so, though it would have added to my 
business, we should have been better fed and that part of the 
ration would not have cost you -above 3 1-2 or at most 4 cents. 

I am not envious of any man's situation, I would not revenge 
an injury if I had no other way of doing it against a man out of 
my reach by inuendoes against him, to his patron: But I fear 
that your business is not in proper hands, I mean those of Mr. 
Quin — He has for three months past become too foppish & 
prodigal to pay attention to his business — If the Contract con- 
tinues with you another year, by all means get a Clever fellow, 
a man of business at the head of your affairs in this Country; 
they are becoming important, and will be still more so: and 
purchase for yourself — Send a store of well chosen English & 
Irish goods here, on them you will make Cent per Cent and pur- 
chase a great part of your meat &c with them: The people 
do so who you have employed and find their account in it, and 
yet their goods are bought at N. Orleans at a terrible advance; 
and they are ever without Cash — I have paid Quin Cash as per 
account enclosed, and drew in favour of Stewart Wilkins for 
flour at the time as mentioned ; we had not then four barrels 
on hand — my respects to my friends in your Quarter — ■ 

I am Dear Sir, 
your Obedient 
James O'Hara Esqr. 1 Humble Servant 

Contractor. j Isaac Guion. 

Dr. James Quin as agent for James O'Hara Esqr. Contractor. 

To the United States by Capt. Guion. 
1797. Drs. 

Novr. 6th To Cash advanced you to defray expences 4S 

1 Dec. To Cash Do to purchase Beef 80 


March 28th. To a Bill drawn on the Secretary 
of War, at ton days sight in f; >"0i 
of Stewart Wilkins lor flour of him 2434 

Dollars 2562 

Natchez May 9th 1798. 


To General John Wilkins Q. M. G. 

~ c . Natchez May 9th 1798. 

Dear Sir, J 

It is doubtful where this will find you should you follow the 
head Quarters of the Army. Mr. Jones who will hand this to 
you, will be able to give you the current news in this Country 
& how my Quarter blaster manages— He has increased to a 
prodigious bulk, Sc is almost too unwieldy to discharge with 
promptitude the active duties of his office — An indisposition 
under which I laboured for a long time after I arrived here 
prevented me from being so minute with him as I should other- 
wise have been, and when the contingent, wffiich he brought 
from Ft. Washington had run out, I knew nothing of it, till 
some time after, when he brought in an account for wood &c. 
&c. &c, amounting to 1205 9G-100 Dollars, for which I drew 
a Bill on the loth March last in favor of Robert & George Coch- 
rans payable at 10 Days sight at the War Office of the United 
States, & to be charged to the Or. Mr. Generals department — 

This is a Hot Country, Sc peopled in a very chequered manner, 
a great number of the most turbulent characters who have fled 
from the different States, for fear of having justice done on 
them — They are the most clamorous for government (having 
nothing to protect) and afraid of it — Should you have leisure, 
when this finds you be so good as to drop me a line. 

With respect & esteem 
I am Dear Sir 

Your Obedt. 
General John Wilkins Huml. Servt. 

Q. M. G. Isaac Guion 

To Major Kersey. 

~ n . Natchez May 10th 179S. 

Dear Sir, 

At the particular instance of Lieut. Butler I beg leave to 

mention to you the great necessity he will have for a pilot or 

man, acquainted with the short cuts in asscending, it will save 

him much in time and labour, and more immediately efted 


what is expected of him by the General- 1 — If the Clothing for 
the troops has reached you, do hasten it, such part as is to 
come here, forward. The men, especially of my Company are 
naked — All the men of the Detachment left at the Bluffs have 
not yet joined, and they are,. those that were doing duty in 
Capt. Heths Company though not then belonging to it, but 
who have been since mustered in it — Send back Boyd the guide 
for Mr. Butler without delay as he is on time — ■ 
Compliments to Wade. 

Your very Obedt. 
Major Kersey. Huml. Servt. 

I. Guion. 

To Samuel Mitchell. 
«. Natchez May 15th 179S. 

Your letter by Adams of the 9th instant I received about an 
hour ago. I remember that I told you when here, as well as 
before by letter, that I suspected that those frenchmen so much 
caressed at Orleans & who went from here the 13th of February, 
were on business unfriendly to the United States — I am now 
convinced of it — To remedy the effect of the talks given to the 
Choctaws below, in favor of the french ; the remembrance of 
their old friends the british should be brought up ; their con- 
nexion by blood with the Americans, one people in language 
&c. &c. — and the strength of the Americans if they should be 
made angry — That they are not like the french or Spaniards 
when they war; but like themselves, know the Woods; are 
armed with rifles, and are as numerous as the trees in the forests. 

I am sorry that you did not engage and send me in an inter- 
preter with Adams; I am hourly in want of one — It is not 
possible for me to determine when they will go on with the line, 
but the fellows should be sent down nc \r\ 1 I 

wish that you would immediately employ two trusty and active 
fellows to go down to the Fort on the Tombigbee near the Bay 
of Mobile to see what is going on there, one can remain and the 
other come in to me; if any thing presents necessary for me to 


know — I will pay them when they come in here. This must 
be done immediately and send me in their names — It is true 
that part of the goods which I expected, are arrived, a like 
quantity is at the W. Hills, and where I would wish that a few 
of their best warriors or headsmen would go— They should 
always have something in writing from you mentioning who 
they are, and of what consequence in their nation, to prevent 
imposition— As we are stronger at the W. Hills than at this 
place, it may make an impression on half a Dozen of the leading 
men to send them to Major Kersey to receive some presents &c. 
— what few goods are here are only to be given to the leading 
men — It is very extraordinary that they should so soon lose 
confidence in the United States, if they ever had any in them — - 
when they know that the Spaniards have not left the American 
side of the line on the Tombigbee, and that we have but just 
"got possession here & at the W. Hills. ' But I view their threats 
to their Chiefs as only intended to try our policy and firmness — 
Doubtless they are urged to do it by the french & Spanish 
emisaries, who are numerous and busy at this moment. 

Let me know whether the man who took the dispatches that 
I sent by Lieutenant Pope has returned or not — Mr. Ellicott 
and his people are yet on the river Bank waiting for I know 
not what — The Spaniards I find do not mean to go on, and are 
Wasting time to serve some french plan now in agitation. We 
will soon have a respectable military force in the Country, and 
things must then have an Issue. 

With respect Sir, 
Saml. Mitchell Esq. \ I am your Obedt. Servt. 

I. A, to the Choctaws. J I. Guion 

To Major William Kersey. 

Natchez May loth 179S 


The equivocal conduct of the Spanish Governor General in 
the business of the line of demarcation, added to a variety of 
concurring reports as well from the Choctaw nation, as below. 
makes it necessary tor me to guard against events injurious to 

the United States, and to call on yon for such immediate aid 
as you can spare from your command to reinforce the Detach- 
ment now here— and to this end you have been no doubt in- 
structed by the Commander in Chief. It is not for me to direct 
of what Corps the troops will be that you detach to my support; 
but if I am suffered to advise, perhaps it will be as well to 
send of our own Corps — But this Sir as you please — 

The french are beyond doubt meditating a stroke at this 
country; and the Dons are secretly abbeting the business — I 
would recommend it to you, to have an eye to some of the 
people left at your Garrison when the Dons left it — particu- 
larly Glass. 

Should you want an interpreter, or a man to go express on 
any business in the Indian Country, I would recommend you 
to apply to a Mr. Hardy Perry who lives on Boyau Pierre, he 
understands the Indian language Sc manners Well, and is to be 
depended on — any one he sends to you may be confided in — 

I am with respect 
Sir, Your very Obedient 
Major Wm. Kersey. ) & most Humble Servt. 

Commanding at the I. Guion Captain. 

W. Hills. ) By Cheney. 

To Ensign McClary. 

Natchez May 19th 1798. 

You will tomorrow morning embark the detachment under 
your Command, on the boat provided for you by the Commis- 
sary Anderson; and will repair With all proper diligence to the 
Camp or Station where Mr. Andrew Ellicott Esqr. Commis- 
sioner for the line of demarcation may be found ; and when there, 
your detachment is, under your own orders, to act as a guard-to 
him, the- Surveyor Mr. Freeman, and to the instruments vV stores 
attached to the Commission --You are to bear constantly in 
mind that the profession of Arms is an honorable one; and that 
your charge is of much magnitude: That in no instance, or by 
any directions are the Soldiery to be employed as labourers or 


drudges: but in that of their duty under Arms — I quote for 
your information and recollection part of the 6th Article of the 
Standing General orders of the 22d of May 1797 — as follows.viz — 
"To Abstract a Soldier from his professional duties, and to sub- 
ject him to the orders of persons not attached to the Army, or 
"to impose upon him menial laborious services is an abuse of 
"Authority, a breach of Contract, & a deep injury to the sendee; 
"because it authorizes negligence in the Soldier, and in effect 
"destroys his arms and his clothing — This practice is' therefore 
"positively prohibited" — You will keep your Command in fre- 
quent exercise of their Arms, and marching and wheeling; and 
always alert & ready to meet whatever Occasion may present — 
You will from time to time furnish me. or the Commanding 
Officer at this post, with returns, noting every casualty that 
may have occurred in your detachment, as W r ell also of every 
information you may receive relative to the public weal or in- 
jury — Wishing you an agreeable and honorable tour — ■ 

I am Sir your Obedient 
Humble Servant 
Ensign John McClary. I. G. Capn. C. 

To Major William Kersey. 

Natchez June 7th 179S. 


I received your letter of the 4th instant by Sergt. Seamers; 
and am sorry that a dearth, such as you complain of, should 
distress you: we have very little of that Article, XEWS, only 
what is manufactured or lingofactured here, but what must 
stop at your post, and unless it is smuggled by, you have the 
first duties on the to land — T have long since directed 
Doctor PfeitTer to make an estimate of Medicine & Hospital 
Stores for the troops as well at your post as here, but we have 
to wait its arrival I om \~ ■: Orleans to which place the order 
has some time ago been sent — Ensign Fero with twenty four 
men of Captain Thomas Lewis's Company arrived here on the 
22d Ultimo, they are no great augmentation to the strength of 
the Command, as half of them nearly, & the Officer are on the 


Sick report — Mr. Hardy Perry had left this place before your 
letter arrived, so that you have him nearer your Garrison, than 
I have him to me. The Sergeant wanted more strength to aid 
him to return, and I have sent one man of Captain Lewis's 
Company under his Command for the purpose, they are vict- 
ualled to include the 14th instant — 

With respect, Sir, 
I am Your Obedient 
Huml. Servt. 
Major Wm. Kersey. I. Guion, Captain. 

To the Secretary of War. 

~. Natchez June 13th 1798. 


I was honored with the receipt of your letter of the 30th of 
March, on the 4th of May by Lieut. Butler, with instructions 
from General Wilkinson at the same time, dated the 10th of 
April — and on the 9th instant with further orders from General 
Wilkinson under date of the 28th of April, and so far as they 
are applicable to the existing state of things in the circle of my 
command, they will be scrupulously and impartially obeyed — 
We have had a variety of reports here respecting the intentions 
of the french aiming an attack upon this Country; and at one 
time, that they had a considerable military force landed at Pen- 
sacola and at Mobile. I dispatched lookers out in that quarter 
immediately, who have returned only six days since, and assure 
me that there is no truth in the report, yet as it is the quarter 
from which we are the most likely to be assailed, if at all, so I 
shall guard it with the most vigilance — Mr. Ellicott went from 
here the 9th of April, to commence his operations in ascertain- 
ing & marking the line of partition — -He has commenced and. 
cut out about four Miles; it is thirty-nine miles south of this 
place — On the 30th of May Governor Gayoso came up to the 
line bringing with him the Spanish guard to the Commissioner, 
and an Oiheer of the Spanish Xavy, who it had been said Was 
to have acted as astronomer — But he returned for Orleans oil 
the first instant taking with him his Officer, and leaving the 



direction of the business with a Mr. William Dunbar, 1 Captain 
Stephen Minor, and Mr. Thomas Power 2 — Their military escort 
on guard thirty in number is Commanded by a Lieutenant 
McCarty. The people of this district, who when left to the 
unbiassed exercise of their own judgment, are in the majority 
above the ordinary capacity of like numbers in most of the 
States, anxiously look for the laws and Officers of government 
for this Country. They are, and have been remarkably tran- 
quil, their situation fairly considered; a few turbulent and 
busy spirits excepted ; yet the arrival of the governor, Judges 
&c. would acid much to their satisfaction, and my ease — I en- 
close copies of my notice to them, at a moment that a few dema- 
gogues had nearly caused a ferment, which produced a happy 
effect and restored quiet, covering the faction with confusion — 
I have also enclosed a duplicate of my letter of the 19th of April; 
since which I have drawn on the Secretary of War in favour of 
Andrew Rabb, jasper Whetstone, and William Johnson on the 
fifth & seventh of May in five sets of exchange for five thou- 
sand dollars for pay to the troops. 

With the greatest respect, 
I have the honor to be 
The honorable Sir, your Obedient 

the Secretary of War . f- Humble Servant, 

for the United States. J I. Guion, Captain. 

To Samuel Mitchell. 

Natchez June loth 1798. 

Your letters by Adams of the 2d instant reached me on the 
11th and yield much satisfaction. 1 am happy to find that the 
six town people are inclined to hear reason; and a strong talk 
was proper: because it is true that although the United Si ''' : 
does not wish to be at variance with them, it is more from hu- 
manity towards them, than a tear of their power — I am much 

'One of the nv incnt citizens of Mississippi Territory, ex; 

and scientist. 

-The agent of Wilkinson in the Carondelet Intrigue. 


in want of an interpreter not having a man here who can render 
one word from or to them — The line is begun, and about four 
miles of it cut out. and they are proceeding with some spirit. 
Governor Gayoso has been up there, staid one day, looked ap- 
probation and departed — The packet which Adams will hand 
you, with this letter, addressed to Colonel Henley is for the 
War Office, and must be sent to Knox Ville as soon as possible, 
the others must take their fate in their own garb — I have not 
been well for a few days past and which prevents my being so 
lengthy to you as I should otherwise be — Thomas Tippard who 
you saw in the Chickasaw Country, is a deserter from the Gar- 
rison of Fort Massac, he belongs to the Artillery Corps — Have 
him apprehended and sent to Fort Adams to Lieut. Marks, or 
to Major Kersey at the Wallnut Hills — 

Mr. Marks is unwarranted in making such a report as you 
mention to have come from him, and if he has done so, is highly 
reprehensible for it. It is not so yet, though appearances 
make it probable, that the first part of it will take place — I 
send you a late paper which will give you the fullest intelli- 
gence on that score — 

I am with due respect 
your Obedient 
Samuel Mitchell Esqr.^ Humble Servant, 

I. A. to the Choctaws. J Isaac Guion, Captain 


To General Wilkinson. 

Natchez June 23d 179S. 

Your Excellency's letter of the 28th of April which was put 
under cover to Colonel Hamtramck 1 I had the honor to receive. 
with a Copy of your orders to that Gentleman of "/no Gth of 
May at the same time, 9th instant, by the hands of Lieutenant 
Shanklin 2 . I likewise received on the loth your Excellency's 
communication of the 23d of April with two pamphlets en- 
closed. By Lieutenant Butler on the 5th Ulto. I had the honor to 

LVn officer of the Continental Army, di>'<l April 11. L803. 
3 Lieutenant 3d Inf. 1794-1796; resigned November ;>, 179S. 


Write to you and enclose copies of my letters to your Excel- 
lency of the 25th of February and 30th of March; and of all 
my correspondence, since my arrival here, with the Spanish 
Officers; likewise my Monthly returns from November to May 
all of which before now I hope have safely reached your hand — 
I am hourly in hopes to hear of the arrival of Colonel Hamtramck 
at the Wallnut Hills, although your Excellency's orders of the 6th 
Ultimo had suspended for a time his movement, yet as his 
presence or that of some Officer superior in rank to the one in 
command there has become so essentially necessary; I am in-. 
duced to hope that this change will soon take place — My De- 
tachment is almost naked, especially my Company who are so 
in fact: and what has kept back the Clothing, medicine and 
hospital stores from this detachment; when the troops from 
and at all the other posts have received their Clothing, is aston- 
ishing — It has very much injured the recruiting business & 
the little medicine & hospital Stores that I have been obliged 
to purchase here has cost more than would an ample quantity 
of those articles for a Regiment for the same time, bought in 
the U. States. Mr. Ellicott has commenced and is going on 
slowly with the business of opening the line, about four 
or five miles is cut — It is in a direct line South, about four and 
an half miles below the present residence of Mr. Daniel Clark, 
and forty miles South of this place — The Spaniards are at work 
in concert with Mr. Ellicott, but Embarrassments & delays on 
their part are frequently presenting: a few days ago, the Gov- 
ernor sent a Message to* the Commissioners, that he apprehended 
opposition would be made to their continuation by the lower 
town Chactaws, and this is a language the Indians say they 
have received from the Spaniards to hold out; as the Virgin- 
ians they were told intended to take all the land to themselves 
above this line — I have just received a letter from Mr. Mitchell 
our agent in the Chactaws, which mentions that the Huwanies 
a town below the Six towns had turned their Horses and Cattle 
among their Corn, and were about to go down the Chickasawhay 
river into the Spanish dominion, and then to war, And I shall 
not be surprised if they attempt some stroke at the workmen 
on the line, or the frontier of this district — and which they 
would not do, if left to themselves — The Spaniards are still in 


possession of a post on the Tombigbee and far within the 
limits of the United States. It is called St. Stephens and is at 
present Commanded by a Lieutenant Ferdinand La Soto who 
has about twelve men with him — The settlement on Tombig- 
bee about St. Stephens is a good one, and contains from one 
hundred and thirty to two hundred men; who are generally 
well affected to the government of the IT. States, and who are 
panting for its protection — The country abounds in stock of 
every kind, and among a number of the inhabitants who are 
wealthy, there is a Mr. John McGrew who could and would 
readily supply the Garrison with provisions. It is about ninety 
miles above the Town of Mobile, in sight of which place it is 
said our line will run — On a fine clear navigable river, with the 
tide flowing up to S. Stephens. A Garrison at this place, & 
of what advantage in a variety of instances, need not be men- 
tioned to your Excellency — It is about twelve days march 
from here to St. Stephens, enclosed herewith is a Copy of my 
latest letter to the War Office, and two letters from the Mes- 
sieurs Clarks. 

Copy of this by the With the utmost respect 

bearer of the 30th July and the truest esteem, 

Duplicate I have the honor to be, 

His Excellency Brigadier Your Excellency's 

Genl. Wilkinson Commander Very Obedient 

in Chief of the troops of the U. S. Humble Servant 

with a Copy of the 13th of June I. Guion Captain. 

to the Sec. of War. 
By McCluny. 

To Samuel Mitchell. 

Natchez Tulv 3d 179S. 

The bearer The young King, Ottamustubbay; and John 

Carnes their waiter have been to the line, but would only stay 

three days and nights — They have been well fed, and have had the 

business fully explained to them— They are now on their. return 

and have received, the bearer and other Chief each anew rifle; 

and all three each two pounds of powder and tour pounds ot 


lead — The two Chiefs each- a Duffels Blanket, and each a Strond, 
two Shirts each, and a flap each. The Spanish Chief a pair of 
arm bands & four pair of ear Bobs — The two others each a pair 
of Wrist Bands, & four pair of Bobs; some wampum & binding 
& a hair pipe to the half Breed, & rice Beef & tobacco at parting. 
The half breed one Duffels Blanket, two Shirts and a flap — I beg 
you to send in no more for a while for I find that it is impossible 
to satisfy them. It is beyond doubt but that we shall soon be 
at War with france, and it behoves us to be on the -look out 
in the quarter towards Mobile — If you keep a runner from time 
to time to go to that country when he returns he should come 
alone here to receive his pay — But if he or they bring with them 
all their Clans, it is better not to employ them; but find some 
white man who will fix a price — Col. Hamtramck has arrived 
and Commands at the Hills — 

With due consideration of 

respect, I am your Obedt. 
Huml. Servt. 
Saml. Mitchell Esqr. I. Guion Captain 

Chactaws. Commanding 

To Colonel Hamtramck. 

„ . , Natchez July 3d 1798. 

Dear Colonel J ' 

Your several letters of the 24th & 31st of May by Lieut. 
Shanklin, and our old acquaintance Gano, as well as that of the 
1st instant. I have duly had the honor to receive — -It affords 
me much satisfaction to be so near you, and I was in hope- th I 
your destination was still further on — On the receipt of your 
last letter I immediately directed the Contractors agent to corn- 
pi}- with your 01 ai I which he has promised me shall be 
done- -Artificers 1 fear are not to be employed at almost any 
rate, or on any u-ni - : and to do some trifling repairs oi the 
Hospital and Garrison buildings here, I have been ob] 
employ Soldiers, or noi run e the Work done. You ask me my 
Dear Sir. Hov i i y for the purchase of Hospital Stores, and 
for the Quarter M i tei - Department is to be oi I, 1 cannot 

" 97 

answer you in any other way, than by depending on the atten- 
tion and care of the Quarter Master General who I would sup- 
pose has been made acquainted with the movements of the 
troops to this quarter, and has made his consequent arrange- 
ments. He sent a contingent sum of two thousand five hun- 
dred Dollars here in May; about one half of this sum at that 
time had been anticipated, and the ballance will be trifling 
indeed, when the bills now due for a variety of Items are paid. 

Our Medicine and hospital Stores purchased necessarily 
here (or want) are many articles quadruple & quintuple the 
Cost in the atlantic States: and this is a tax the public pay to 
those who are entrusted with this business, and who through 
ignorance or indolence neglect forwarding in time the Stores — ■ 
I had always understood that Massac was the grand Depot of 
everything for our use, and expected an ample supply of every- 
thing from thence. And I assure you Sir of almost every article 
are we destitute: Camp equipage we have none, a few old 
weather beaten and rotten tents excepted ; The troops who 
occupy them having done so since August last — The troops are 
litteraly naked, my Company more especially; and this want 
of Clothing has greatly injured the recruiting sendee — I enclose 
you a return of my strength of those who are entitled to Cloth- 
ing; also a report, including Captain Lewis's & not embracing 
the Commissioners guard, who are naked — Chickens my Dear 
Colonel it is not now in my power to send you any, but porter 
I have sent you two dozen — and pray that it may contribute 
to continue you in health. The young man you mention who 
made free with your name, I have been obliged to restrain in 
his career, for ouvert acts of Outrage — I have heard it men- 
tioned here that at the Hills he had spoken disrespectfully of 
yourself and the General, and intended to make this a Charge 
in his account. 

Captains Dernier & Heth join in their respects to you with 
those of Dear Sir, your very sincere friend, 

and most Obedient 
Colonel John F. Hamtramck Humble Servant 

Commanding at the W. Hills. I. Guion, Captain. 



To Lieutenant Bowyer. l 

Natchez July 3d 179S. 
Sir, J J 

You will tomorrow at Reveille, with one Sergeant, one Cor-" 

poral & fourteen privates under your Command, in a Keel Boat, 

proceed with all possible diligence to the Wallnut Hills; where 

arrived you will immediately wait on and report yourself to 

Colonel Hamtramck, or the Commanding Officer, and receive 

his .orders — You are to receive Clothing for the detachment 

here with which you will return with due diligence & Care — ■ 

Your party is victualled to include the 9th instant — 

I am your Obedt. 

Lieutenant Huml. Servant 

John Bowyer. I. Guion Captn Commg. 

To the Secretary of War. 

Natchez July 9th 179S. 

By the post from this place to the Choctaws, and via the 
little Turkeys Town to Knox Ville, on the 13th Ultimo I had 
last the honor to address you — a duplicate of which is covered 
with this — nothing material has occurred since in this quarter: 
The Indians are still pacific, though constantly urged to the 
Contrary by the Spanish Emissaries in the nation, at Mobile 
and Orleans: many of their principal men have visited here 
and declared their friendly disposition and intention: and their 
determination to discountenance the talks given them by the 
Spaniards. Some of the Six Town Choctaws, and a tribe 
called the Huwanies who have long been in the Spanish interest, 
I fear may be troublesome to the working party on the line as 
every argument has been used to implant in their minds, that 
all the lands above this line were immediately to be possessed 
by us the Virgini; n as they term us —In consequence of which 
the Huwanies who inhabited far up in the Choctaws have de- 
stroyed have destroyed their Corn and removed below, on the 
borders of Lake Pout Chart rain. 

John Bowyer oi Virginia; honorably discharged Juno 15, 1S15. 

. 99 

Colonel Hamtramck arrived at the • Wallnut Hills the 29th 
Ultimo, he found the Garrison in a very sick Condition, and 
without medical aid, medicine or hospital Stores: Doctor Dor- 
sey not having thought proper to return according to agree- 
ment — Mr. Ellicott and his people are continuing their employ- 
ment, and have got on about Seven Miles — On the Gth instant 
I drew Bills on the Secretary of War for one thousand dollars 
in favour of William Cameron, and today in favour -of Mr. John 
McKee for four hundred and fifty dollars in exchange for his 
bills for the like sum — 

With the greatest respect 
The Honorable I have the honor to be 

James Mc Henry Secretary Sir your Obedt. Huml. Servt. 
of War United States. I. Guion Captain. 

To General Wilkinson. 

^ n , Natchez July 30th 179S. 

Dear General, J J 

The twenty sixth in the evening Mr. Williamson arrived and 
with him your, several letters of the 25th 27th and 3Uth Ultimo 
from Fort Washington. What could have kept my letters of 
the 25th of February, Thirtieth of March, and fifth of May 
from your Excellency's hands untill the date of your letters, 
mortifies and astonishes me — By the way of the Chickasaw 
Nation on the 23d Ultimo I had the honor to address you; a 
duplicate is enclosed and goes by the same route — On the 29th 
Ultimo Colonel Hamtramck arrived and took the Command at 
the Wallnut Hills, & on being informed that he had some cloth- 
ing for my detachment, an Officer and party were immediately 
detached for it, which was received and brought here: It 
is however but a very partial supply, and little more than will 
complete one Company of Infantry and one of Artillery for 
one year— The Colonel complains of the Want of Medicine. 
Hospital Stores, and Contingent money for the purposes of 
the quarter masters department, and his Wants, but. in some 
few articles of medicine. I am unable to supply. His command 
are more than half down with the fever, and but two Officers 


fit for duty — Captain John Pierce after two or three weeks ill- 
ness died on the 24th instant— Of my Command whose aggre- 
gate of non Commissioned and rank & file amounts to one 
hundred and seventy, fifty two are Sick; none yet dangerous. 
The probability of your having" passed the post at the Bluffs 
before this reaches it induces me to close, in assuring your 
Excellency that I have in all Cases, used all my efforts to appre- 
ciate your orders, and directions where and when applicable 
to my Case in this Country — 

With the truest respect and 
esteem, I am your Excellency's 
Obedt. Humble Servt. 
General Wilkinson I. Guion. 

Sent by Mr. Henry Turner 
with duplicate of the 23d Ult. 

To Colonel Hamtramck. 

, r _ _ , , Natchez August 6th 179S. 

My Dear Colonel, 

Your several letters by Lieut. Bowyer by express, by Wells 
and Basheford, and by Mr. Williamson I have had the honor to 
receive, but not till now a safe conveyance of acknowledging 
them and of answering you — Captain Wade has it is true been 
some time away part of this time. I have been constrained to 
detain him as judge Advocate to the Court for the trial of En- 
sign Fero: He now goes to you with pay for the troops to Cora- 
pleat the last year, and for the Officers to the first of June of the 
present year, and eight hundred dollars recruiting money 
amounting in the Whole to 5G51 Dollars— I feel for your situ- 
ation environed with fever rmd death and sincerely wish it was 
in my power to alleviate it— we are not so deadly here, but our 
prospects are sufficiently gloomy; Mr. Williamson, lies in my 
quarters so ill as to 1 paired of by those of more skill than 

myself, but I have still hopes of his recovery; I am grunting 
among the number of my Officers all of whom have had partial 
attacks of the reigning billioiis malady; indeed to be plain I 
almost unable to hold up, and but for the distraction that 


would follow my absence, having the business of Civil & mili- 
tary on my hands, the Country where good water runs should 
soon bring me up — -Mr. Peyton will do well although he is weak, 
and has relapses, yet it is debility alone that holds him sick, 
he is free of bile — You must not expose yourself to the Sun- 
beams from nine to five 'Clock, and not at all to the night air; 
Sleep with your Chamber windows shut and continue your 
bath and all will be right I hope — Mr. Mitchell the Choctaw 
Agent has no authority to promise such rewards for bringing 
in deserters — he has been directed by me it is true, whenever 
I have heard of any of that description being with the Indians, 
to send then to the Hills or here, leaving it with the Commanding 
Officer to settle the Compensation. Captain Wade can tell 
you the State of our Medicine — We have a little that came 
down with one Moore in the Contractors Boats, it is of no ac- 
count scarcely, not but a few articles precious — I wish for 
something good to eat or drink to Send you, but we are parched 
to the Centre as well within as without doors, and the hot sea- 
son will be past, before a supply of wine or porter can well 
arrive — Mr. Peyton delivered your handsome present which 
will decorate me only on gala days, and be hung up in the ward- 
robe for trim to bring out brush and descant upon, when I 
make my leg to the Widow Wadman — Le Jeune homme, com- 
mence, Je croi, a sentir le fardeau quil porte, aussi le honte que 
lui poursuivrai — il n'y est plus! selon la sentence — 

With Affectionate respect, 
Dear Colonel, lam 
Colonel Hamtramck Your Obedt. Huml. Servt. 

Commg. W. Hills. I. Guion. 

To Samuel Mitchell. 

Natchez August 11th 179S. 

Your letter of the 20th Ultimo by Adams I received on the 

9th instant. I had heard by a man from Tombigbee that 

Colonel Hawkins had left the Creek nation in consequences of 

menaces against him: This is an unfortunate circumstance at 

Li-^U^.W.iiW *«k*u-**m£uJ& 


this time, & must pat us the more on our guard against french 
influence — We must cherish and conciliate the Choctaws by 
every means in our power, as well from political as other mo- 
tives — There is no great friendship subsisting between the 
Creeks and them: and if judged expedient by the government, 
they could without much trouble be made to divert the atten- 
tion of the Creeks from other objects — I know of no letter from 
Colonel McKee which I did not send by Adams the last time — 
I now send you with this a letter from Williams — I have many 
sick, and some dying round me & which has prevented me from 
sending Adams back earlier — Governor Sargent arrived here 
the sixth, he is indisposed but I hope will soon recover. As 
by the Ordinance for the establishment of this government, 
the Governor is Superintendent of Indian affairs, all those you 
send here in future must be addressed to him — I have given 
Adams directions to Call on my Surgeon for the Medicine you 
want and I believe he will obtain it — 

With respect and esteem 
I am Sir, your Obedient 
Samuel Mitchell Esqr. Humble Sen-ant 

Agent to the Choctaws. I. Guion. 

To the Secretary of War . 

Camp near Loftus's Heights 1 Jan. 3d 1799. 

On the 9th of July last from the Natchez was the last com- 
munication I had the honor to make to you, owing to the daily 
expectation of Colonel Hamtramck's arrival to take the Com- 
mand at the Natchez, and the knowledge of his being at the 
Wallnut Hills at which [dace he arrived on the 29th of May — 
General Wilkinson, who arrived at the Natchez about, the 25th 
September informed me that it was your desire that 1 should 
continue to draw F3 ills an 1 pay tl c tro 1 >ps as before, and k i 
ing it to be his duty to make every communication relative to 
his Command to the Secretary of War I remained silent— Lest 
however you mi^ht conceive me remiss, I new enclose to the 

A military }■■ ' I s >uth of Natchez, 


Secretary a Schedule of my draughts, and the dates thereof, 
including fifteen Thousand Dollars not yet received, part of the 
requisite sum to pay the Troops up to the close of the last year — 
If time was sufficient to state with due correctness the accounts 
of disbursements, as well as the receipts before the General 
closes his dispatches by which occasion this is forwarded to you, 
it Should have been done; as well as one Set of Vouchers sent 
to the Accountant's Office, the amount of which more than 
equals the receipts, by my own pay &c. &c. No forms were 
ever transmitted to me, but I continued the old forms, and 
which on a comparison with those of Lieut. Hyde from the 
Accountants Office do not differ essentially — ■ 

Be pleased Sir to accept of my grateful thanks for your 
friendship and believe me with much Sincerity to be 
The Honorable your Very Obedient 

the Secretary of War Huml. Servant 

United States. I. Guion. 


June 19th. John McClean from Kaskias in a Boat, he left 
that place the 15th with 5 men — The Spaniards at St. Louis 
are active in warlike preparation — That an intelligent Spanish 
Sergt. and 3 men lately came over, avowing themselves "desert - 
ters, and that they were very pressing to come to this place 
with him but his suspicion of them induced him to refuse them 
a passage. The river Mississippi is remarkably high. 

June 20th. John Mimm left Natchez the 2d of May came up 
to New Madrid in Mr. Clerks boat, he left Mr. Ellicott & Pope 
at that place, that the first lived in a small Stockaded House, 
and Mr. Popes party & McClearys joined live in Tents. That 
Governor Gayoso lived one mile from the Garrison — he says 
that when they first arrived at Natchez the Garrison was v 
but four or five days after a Galley arrived and anchored a little 
below till some time in the night, when they landed 100 men & 
threw them in the Garrison and a short time alter 40 men t'r i 
Point Coupee also joined — - 

June 21. Philip Stucker of Woodford County State of Ken- 
tucky. See the other end. — [p. 29] 

June 25th. Loins Legrave native of Languedoc in Frame. 


John Canton of Biarre in France, and Charles Morrell Lyon- 
nais, or of Lyons in france, say they are deserters from the 
Garrison of St. Louis Regt. of Louisiana: The first a Sergt. the 
two others privates left on the night of the 7th or 8th instant; 
that the Garrison was 138 men strong, but the night before he 
deserted two men left it & two with himself reduced it 133 men. 
That the militia were not more in number than 250 at most 
that they did the patrole duty. That 3 Galleys & 2 Gun Boats 
were then lying at St. Loais — One the Vengeance the Commo- 
dore Garcey had one 18-pounder and twelve swivels — The 
Louisiana one 24 p. 2 four and 8 swivels commanded by one 
Mertzenger — The last has none a Galliot two brass Guns of a 
pound ball. The Thunderer, a Galliot one 4-pounder — That 
Lt. Colonel Howard commanded — That while at the Chickasaw 
Bluffs Joseph de Ville de Goutinou belle Chasse Lieut, of Grena- 
diers Commanded ; that their greatest force was never more 
than 116 — that they now have one Sergt. one Corporal & 12 
Men opposite — That Mr. Trudeau was the civil Commr. at St. 
Louis & M. Vallet was the military Commr. with 1 Corporal & 
2 Soldiers at St. Genevieve — That at St. Louis 5 round Towers 
of mason work wall 10 feet thick were building and 20 feet 
diametre within the walls; that they were to be mounted with 
eight 6 pounders each, above where the wall was elevated 20 

io William Simmons. 

Camp at Loftus's Heights on the Margin 

_ of the Mississippi, January the 3d 1799 

Dear Sir, 

Enclosed you have, a Schedule of Bills drawn by me on the 
Secretary of War since I have been on Command in this quarter 
— I shall embrace the first next safe occasion to transmit one set 
of Vouchers of disbursements to your Office : did time now per- 
mit to do it accurately, it should not be omitted- burse- 
ments have however, exceeded the receipts a little! my own 
pay & rations taken in the account. I could wish to have had 
forms, such as you use in your Otlice, sent to me: but I have 
not deviated assentially as 1 find by Mr. Hydes Book settled 


at your office — You will please to observe that 15000 Dollars 
in favour of Danl. Clark, of the 1st & 2d Ulto. is in part for pay 
to the troops to Compleat them for the last year, & not yet 

I have written to the Secretary by this conveyance, and en- 
closed a Copy of the Schedule. 

Please Sir, to mention me in terms of respectful friendship 
to your Lady — & believe to be 

your real friend, 
Wm. Simmons Esqr. & Obedt. Huml. Servt. 

Accountt. to the Departmt. I. Guion. 

of War. 

To the Secretary of. War. 

Natchez, February 26th 1799. 

On the 24th Ultimo I was honored with your letter of the 3d 
of October 1798, acknowledging the receipt of mine of July 9th 
179S, and of the presentation of two Bills of exchange each for 
five hundred dollars, dated July 11th and 13th in favor of Sam- 
uel Wilson. I perfectly recollect having drawn those Bills, 
and of entering them in my Bill Book, and that the applica- 
tion was generally for pay to the Troops. It is impossible to 
Specify the appropriation, of the Sums arising on each draught 
unless the Cash be kept seperate and noted on the particular 
Pay Roll, Subsistence account, or bounty receipt &c. &c. to 
which it was disbursed — To pay the troops at the Wallnut Hills 
alone up to the 1st of 1798 (besides for bounty to reinlist men 
at that Post) required more than five thousand dollars, obliged 
me to draw at different times as Sums presented to answer the 
exigency of future Calls — On the 17th Ultimo from this place, 
I drew in favour of Mr. Henry Turner for 900 Dollars for pay 
to the troops — and yesterday, as per advice and agreeably to 
the Generals order, in favor of Abijah Hunt for two thousand 
five hundred Dollars for bounty to recruit the Troops. And 
this day as per advice with each Set, for nine thousand five 
hundred dollars, for pay to the troops in this quarter to com- 
pleat them up to the first Proximo- — 1 have never received any 


form from the Accountants Office for making up the accounts 
and Rolls, but have followed as well as my recollection and 
knowledge could serve me, the old forms used by Mr. Swan P. M. 

With the greatest respect Sir, 
The Honorable I have the honor to be 

James McHenry Your Very Obedt. 

Secretary of War for Humble Servant 

the United States I. Guion. 

To General Wilkinson. 


Loftus's Heights April 6th 1799. 

Your Orders of yesterday directing me, in conformity to 
Similar orders from the War Office, to close my public accounts 
I had the honor to receive — From the desultory mode in which 
the business has been done, for want of proper form in the first 
place, and to the increase of business since your Execllency 
arrived, it has become of too great magnitude to be well done, 
if done hastily: I therefore request your permission to go to 
Philadelphia that I may in person close my public accounts 
of every kind, and which cannot to my satisfaction be other- 
wise so well done — 

With great respect Sir 
I have the honor to be 
His Excellency Your Most Obedient 

General Wilkinson. Humble Servant 

I. Guion Captain in 3d Regt. 


To Governor De Grand Pre. 

Camp at Loftus's Heights 9th .May 1799. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Excel- 
lencys dispatch to General Wilkinson, by your Courier one 
hour since. 


The General having removed to the Natchez and left me in 
Command of this Post, your dispatch is forwarded to him — 

With great consideration and respect I have the honor to be 

Your Excellency's 
His Excellency Very Humble & Obedt. Servt. 

Governor De Grand Pre. 


To the Same. 

Loftus's Heights May 12th 1799. 

Enclosed is a description of two soldiers of the American 
Troops who deserted from this Post last night and stole a small 
skiff the property of an individual of this place — My Confidence 
in your Excellency's well known disposition to promote the 
friendly offices between our nations in minutely fulfilling the 
treaty, as well as the Convention lately entered into between 
His Excellency Governor General Gayoso & General Wilkinson, 
induces me to hope that your Excellency will use your power 
to have apprehended the said Deserters, & thieves, that may 
returned agreeably to Compact — 

With high respect I have the 
Honor to be yr. Obedt. Huml. Servt. 
His Excell. Govr. De Grand Pre. 

To the Same. 

Loftus's Heights May 13th 1799. 

Sir, & 

Yesterday by a Mr. Winter in a Boat for Orleans. I had the 
honor to address your Excellency, and cover a description of 
two deserters from this post, who stole a small fishing Boat 
the dependence of a poor individual of this place — and now by 
Express, your Excellency will receive the description of three 
other deserters who left this by land previous to the first men- 

Whenever it may be convenient to your Excellency to send 


a^^< T^iWniMn Al^^^^^ 

all or 

any of the 

se fugitives 

back to their Corp 

s, a suitable party 


attend at 

the line of 

limits to receive 

them on the first 

intimation from 



High respect and esteem 

I ha\ 

e the Honor to be 

your Excellencys 



Obedt. Huml. 



De Grand Pre. 

To the Same. 


Loftus's Heights 

May 14th 1799. 

By your Courier, this minute arrived, I am honored with 
your Excellency's favour of yesterdays date, and a packet for 
General Wilkinson which shall be forwarded to him without 
loss of time; equally flattered by the occasion which affords 
me an opportunity to manifest the great esteem with which 

I have the Honor to be 
Your Excellencys 
His Excellency Very Obedt. Very Humble Servant. 

Governor De Grand Pre. 

Captain Isaac Guion in Account with the U. S. 
1797 Dr. 

August loth. To Cash recd. of James Andrews for a Bill on 
James McHenrv Esq. Secy, of War at 10 

Days for _\ _ _ § 500 00 

20th. To Cash recd. of Elisha Winters for a Bill on 
James McHenrv Esqr. Secy, of War at 10 

Days Sight for 1 .000 00 

Oct. 27th. To Cash of Jeremiah & Abijah Hunt for pay 
to the troops to be left at Ft. Adams on a 
bill on the Secry. of War 600 00 

Dollrs S2.1U0 00 

1797 Dr. 

May To Cash recd. Lieut. S. Vance to pay Ids Com- 
pany then at Ft. Massac ' SI, 494 00 

Octor. To Ballance of Cash recd. on draughts and 

brought from page 1 8S8 00 

Dollars $2,382 00 


1798 Dr. 

Feby. To Ballance Brought from page 3 $315 16 

19th. To Bill en the Sec v. of War in favour of Roger 

McQuillin. ;____ 100 00 

Amount carried forward „ $415 1G 

1798 Dr. 

Feb. 19. To Amount Brot. from last page $415 16 

Ammount carried to page 6 

Dr. James O'Hara Esq. Contractor in account with the U . S. 
Cr. Captain Guion following 

August 20th. To Cash received of Captain Isaac Guion by 
your agent, in payment of thirty four head 
of Beef Cattle, for the troops of the United 
States $850 00 

Septemr. 11th. To Cash received by your agent James Quin, 
of Captain Isaac Guion, to defray the ex- 
penses of a hired man in your employ 20 00 

27th. To Cash received of Captain Isaac Guion by 
your agent to pay James Colbert for ten 
head of Beef Cattle for the use of the troops 
of the U. S __..___ 214 00 

Nov. 6th. To Cash received of Captain Isaac Guion by 
your agent James Quin to defray expenses 
as per receipts 4S 00 

Dec. 1st. To Cash received of Captain Isaac Guion by 
your agent James Quin, to pay for Beef for 
the use of the troops of the U. States, as pr. 
acct . & receipt 80 00 

Dollrs $1,212 00 

Officers Pay Account 

To Ensign Wm. Scott for his pav in full to the 

first of May 9S pr. receipt rolls $100 00 

To Captain Demler for pay in full from Janu- 
ary to the 1st Septemr. 8 months 320 00 

To Lieutenant Pope for pav from the 1. Janu- 
ary 1798 to the t. May 1798 - 120 00 

To Lieutenant Campbell" for pav from the first 

of Januv. 1798 to the 1. Mav 98 120 00 

To Lieut. Gregg 5 Mont lis of l'797 150 00 

To Doctor I. Barry for pav & Forage from 9th 

August to 26th "October 98 , . 92 60 

To Lieut. Marschalk of Artillerists for pav 

from J uly 3 1 to Deer. 31, 1798 1 50 00 

Lieut. Elmer to Cash lent 50 00 



















Captain Isaac Guion in Account with the United States 

By duplicate pay receipt rolls and loose re- 
ceipts of his Compy. (Capt. Guions) SI, 420 87 

5th. By amount of pay on duplicate pay receipt 
rolls paid Capt. Guion's Company at Fort 

Adams _" 140 00 

By amount of pay on duplicate pay receipt 
rolls paid Captain Heths Company at Fort 

Adams ' 225 97 

By amount of pay on duplicate pay receipt 
Rolls, paid Captain Demlers Comp. of Ar- 
tillery at F. Adams 90 00 

11. By Cash paid Lieut. Piercy S. Pope of Artil- 
lerists & Engineers on his duplicate receipts 104 00 

15th. By Cash paid Edward Hincks a discharged 
Soldier of Captain Guions Company, in full 
for his services — as pr. receipts 32 00 

19th. By Cash paid James Parker a discharged Sol- 
dier of Captain Guion's Company, in full 

for his services as pr. duplicate receipts 34 00 

9. By Cash advanced to Doctor George Pfeiffer 

on account of pay 20 00 

Amount carried forward $2,066 84 





Captain Isaac Guion in Account with the United States. 

24th. By reinlistment of Thomas Dougherty, Capt. 

Heths Company bounty & premium 

22d. John Wood & Leycester Cryer inlisted for 
Captain Heths Co. Bounty & premium to 
both 1 

2d. By John Copeland inlisted, bounty & premium 
1st. By Robt. Mason's inlistment, bounty & prem- 
ium ' 

15th. By William Wyatt inlisted, bounty & prem- 

20th. By Henry Frankford & Archibald Diddep re- 
inlisted bounty & premium 

21st. By Henry Davies, Stephen Havens, Hugh 
Thompson. & Martin Mason reinlistments 

Bounty & premium 

22d. By Win. Allen reinlisted, Bounty & premium 
24th. By Geo. Montgomery reinlisted, Bounty & 

premium, .. 

25th. By Win. Pollock, Wm. Harrington, Freder- 
ick Turnham David Walker, & Robt. Smith 

reinlisted, Bounty lV premium. 

31st. By Humphrey Gerry & Xeil Duffie reinli ted, 

bounty & premium 

2d. By Root, John Sparks, & Jas. Gornley 

reinlisted. Bounty & premium 

2d. By John Stewart inlisted bounty & premium 

3d. By John Carton & Lowdy Bennetl reinlisted 

bounty & premium 

















15 00 

90 00 
36 00 

54 00 

16 00 

:>6 00 



4th. By John McFee reinlisted, bounty Sc premium SIS 00 
5th. By Willm. Burnough S: Michael Nouse rein- 
listed, bounty & premium 36 00 

10. By Laurent Le'fevre inlisted, bounty & prem- 
ium 16 00 

Carried forward $544 00 

Captain Guion in Account with the United States. 




By ammount from last page 

By John McCollister & Wm. WoodBerrys 
reinlistments in the Artillery, & Bounty & 

By amount paid Lieutenant Piercy Pope on 
account of his pay, as per duplicate re- 

By amount of pay to Capt. Guion's Corny, for 
May & June 1797 as pr. Receipt Rolls 

By amount paid Alexander Brady a dis- 
charged Soldier, for his pay from the 1st of 
May 1797, to the 30th January 1798 in full, _ 

By Cash advanced Captain George Dernier, as 
pr. Receipt, on acct. pay 

By Cash paid John Hall, Edward Wheeler, & 
Abraham Walker for bounty each for rein- 
listing, & premium 

By Cash paid Jacob Lee for bounty for rein- 
listing & premium 

By Cash paid Andrew Mallaby for bounty for 
reinlisting & premium 

By Cash paid Henry Rhoads for bounty for 
reinlisting & premium _> 

By Cash paid William Dotton for Bounty for 
reinlisting & premium 

By Cash paid William Jones Junior for bounty 
for reinlisting & premium 

By Cash paid Doctor George PfeiiTer on Ac 

Ammt . carrd. forward 


Goodspeed 2 

Moody 1 

vStod dard * 3 

Daniels 4 

DurTey ■ 5 

Gerrv 6 

Mallaby 7 

Meredith S 

Robertson 9 

Armstrong 10 

Barret. . .... - 1 i 













































SI, 253 





1 l 

< 1 

1 ! 





I i 













No. Dolls. 

Bennett ■_ 12 8 00 

Cavenagh 13 6 00 

Callaghan 14 8 00 

Davies 15 8 00 

Dollon 16 8 00 

Devine 17 8 00 

Havens -. 18 8 00 

Hall . 19 8 00 

Hazell 20 8 00 

Harrington 21 8 00 

Jones Sen 22 8 00 

Jones Jun 23 8 00 

Louck 24 8 00 

Lacey 25 8 00 

Lee 26 8 00 

Man 27 8 00 

Mulvanev 28 8 00 

Montgomerv 29 8 00 

McDonald 30 8 00 

Pollock 31 8 00 

Root . 32 8 00 

Rockwell 33 8 00 

Skidmore 34 8 00 

Sanders 35 8 00 

Thompson 36 8 00 

Turnham 37 8 00 

Wright 38 8 00 

D. Walker 39 S 00 

A. Walker 40 6 00 

Wheeler 41 6 00 

Hellon 42 10 00 

Smith 43 8 00 

Saxton 44 10 00 

Pippin 45 8 00 

Rhodes . 46 8 00 

Example — No. — Good for Eight or Ten Dollars, payable to Goodspeed. 

I. Guion Captain 
IS Feby. OS. 

Bounty Account. 

August 6th. paid John Bodenea in full Recept No $ 7 00 

August 6th. paid Charles Sistel in full Do 7 00 

August 8th. paid to Daniel Xorton recruit Xo 7 00 

August 13th. paid to John Sorker do Xo 7 00 

August 13th. paid to Dennis Callaghan Xo 10 00 

August 21. paid to ("ohn Crowdes Xo 16 00 

Sep. 3d. paid to John Millar Xo . 14 00 

4th. paid to James Robertson, Alex. McDonald, 
Henry Saxton, Wm. Armstrong, Saml. 
Devine, Wm. [ones [unr. & Peter Hip] le 

bounty ~ . _.. 112 00 

113 — //^ 

Paid on Account. 

(This was torn as shown.) 

for pay of the troops 84,851 00 

recruiting 800 00 

P. Pope on ace. of pay 16 00 

Demler on acct . of pay 50 00 

Hinson for public Service he \ oqq q 
on to Orleans / 

Edwd. Evans for Or. Mr. General • 100 00 

To Captain Geo. Demler for pa}' 22 00 

To Captain Heth for Subsistence 170 00 

To Captain Demler on acct . pay 248 00 

To Seven Men for reinlisting — bounty 112 00 

To Anw. McGuire a Soldier for pav 56 00 

To Captain John Heth for recruiting 200 00 

To James St okes a Soldier for pav 32 00 

To the Or. Mr. department : 114 48 

To due Bills 259 42 

To Lieut. Campble 120 00 

To Lieut. A. Gregg for pav from 1st Aug. 1797 to the 1st 

Januy. 1798 ' 150 00 

To discharged Soldiers 71 44 

To Lieut . Pope for Graft en 18 50 

To discharged Soldiers 70 64 

(This seems to be a page of memoranda.) 

Natchez 17 Febv. Borrowed of Charles Anderson on receipt 

paid 31 March 1 798 150 Dollars 

19 Feby. Bill in favour of Roger McQuillin 100 Dollars 

March. 16. Borrowed of Mr. James Moore on receipt return- 
able on demand 100 Dollars 

paid 31st March 

10 May. Reed, of T. Jones Contingent 2111 Dollars 

Do Do 144 Crowns 

Evans on rect. of Tones 412 D. 

2209 40-100 what I reed. 
17 May. Dr. Captain YVm. Richard paid Lewis Evans for 

Cane S6 00 

7th June for Stores to Grass 00 

paid by Capt. Wade . 12 00 


179S Dr. Captain John Pierce 

Jim 7. For Stores to Grasse S31 00 

April 18. For Cash paid your order to Brown & Seay 54 SO 

The estate of Cant. Pierce deceased So SO 



.50 note. 
'Talk and 





Adams, 102. 

Adams, President, 

Address, Indian, 
67. 69, 70. 

Adoption, of rules, re portraits and 
paintings for Hall of Fame, 7. 

Affidavits, re securing passports, 
Holmes administration, 14. 

Albany, 50. 

Alien enemy law, papers of 1812, 

Allan, James, 44. 

Alleghanies, mountains, 11. 

Allen, William, 110. 

America and West Indies, re original 
papers, letters and enclosures to Sec- 
retary of State from Gov. Chester, 10, 

1773-74 ( 
















1 1. 

Vol. 266, 




1780-81 j 

American Hist. Association, meeting of, 

Anderson, 113. 
Andrews, James, 108. 
Appendix, 25; re introductory note, 25; 

re I. Guion, 25-27; re letters, 27-108. 
Appointment, committee on legislation, 

Appointment of executive committee, 8 
Archives, classification of official, 13. 
Archives, Miss. Territorial, 1798-1871; 

lists of executive, 13, 14, 15; lists ( i 

legislative, 15, 16. 
Archives of Sargent's administration, 

1 798-1801 ; table of, 13. 
Archives, Transcripts of English, re 

Miss, history, 10. 
Archives, Transcripts of French, re Miss. 

history, 10, 12. 
Archives, Transcript of Spanish, re Miss., 

history, 11, 12. 
Armstrong, 111. 
Armstrong, \Ym,, 
Army papers, 1 1. 
Argus, ship, 82. 
Augusta, 51 . 
Barret, 111. 

! ! 

Barry, Dr. I., 109. 

Basheford, 100. 

Baton Rouge River, 69. 

Beauregard, Capt. Elias. re letter to 

from Capt. Guion, 59; 81. 
Bennett, 112. 
Bennett, Lowdy, 110. 
"Bibliotheque Xationale Paris," 17. 
Biarre, 104. 

Blount, Gov., 51, 63 and note, 64. 
Boat Chickasaw 34. 
Bodenea, John, 112. 
Bounty account, 110. 
Boyau, Pierre, 70. S3. 
Bowver, Lieut., 84, letter to from Capt. 

Guion, 9S; 98 note, 100. 
Boyd, guide, 87. 
Brady, Alexander, 111. 
Brenham, 23. 
British Museum, 17. 
Brockesses, Mr., 70. 
Brown, Sergt., 44, 46. 
Brown & Sea, 113. 
Brown, John,. 49, 51. 
Brunson. Prof. G. H., 5, S, 9, 10. 
Buena Vista, 23. 
Burnet, Mr., SO, 81. 
Burnet, Daniel, 84 note. 
Burnough, Win., 111. 
Burr, Aaron, re intrigues of, 11, 14, 23. 
Butler, duplicate letter of Guion by, 73, 

Butler, Lieut., 73, SO, 82, 86, 87, 91, 93. 
Calhoun, 19. 
Callaghan. Dennis. 112. 
Cameron, William, 99. 
Campbell, Mr.. 53. 
Campbell, Lieut.. 52; re letter to from 

Capt. Guion, 57-58; 59, 76, 109, 113. 
Campbell, Gov. YV\. 23. 
Camps, condition of. 96, 97. 
Cane. 113,. 
Canton, John, 104. 
"Captain Isaac Guion in account with 

the U. S.." 10S-113. 
Carondclct, Baron De, 25, 27, 29, letter 

to from Capt. Guion, 39-40; 17, 63. 
Carondclct intrigue, '.'2. 
Carton, |ohn. 1 10. 
Cavenagh, l 12. 

Chai ges in rules suggested, 21. 
Chauteau, M . S3. 




Chickasaw Bluffs, 20. 32, 35. 36, 41, 42, 
44, 46, 73, 76. 81, 9S. 

Chickasawhay River, 94. 

Chickasaw oracle, 42. 

Chickasaws, 26, 29, 32, 33, 42, 51, 66. 

Chippewas, 66. 

Choctaws, 29. .38. 60, 66, 67. 70; re de- 
scription of, 87; 88, 89, 94, 102. 

Chooshewataha, 37 note. 

Cidevant, Duke of Orleans. 07. 

Claiborne, Gov. W. C. C, 14. 

Claiborne, J. F. H., 25; re Capt. Guion, 
26, 27. 

Clark, Daniel, letter to from Capt. Gui- 
on, 75, 83 ; 75 and note, 78, 81 , S3, 94, 

Clark, Richard, S3. 

Classification of official archives, 13. 

Cochrane, Geo., 78. 86. 

Cochrane, Robt., 78. 86. 

Colbert, Geo., 32 note. 

Colbert, Jas., 109. 

Colbert, William, 36, 37 note, 42, 43, 49, 

■ 58. 

Commissioner Ellicott, re conduct of, SI . 

Commissioner, guard, 97. 

"Conclusion," 23, 24. 

Condition of Country, re Philip Stucker, 

Condition of forts. 57. 69, 96, 97, 99, 100, 
^ 101. 

Conditions in Miss., S6. 

Conduct of Mr. Quin, ^o, SO. 

Confirmation of trustees, 9, 10. 

Contest, re Wolf's friend and mountain 
leader, 42, 49. 

Contingent fund account, 14. 

Controversy, re Forts N'atchez and Wal- 
nut Hill,' 37. 3S, 39. 41. 

Controversy, re Gov. Gayoso. 03-65. 

Controversy, re Col. Minor, 00-03. 

Co-operation, re historical agencies, 11, 

Copeland, John, 110. 

Correspondence, re Gov. Holmes and 
Judge Toulmin, 14. 

Craig,' Elijah, 32. 83. 84. 

Craig. Mai. Isaac, letter to from Capt. 
Guion, 53-51, S3 81; 53 and note, 54, 
83, 84. 

Creeks, 29, -13. 101, 102. 

Crowdcs, John, 1 12. 

Crycr, Leycester, 1 10. 

Cumberland, 34. 

Cumberland River, 31. 

Daniels, 111. 

Daughters of the Confederacy, 23. 

Da vies, Henry, 1 10. 

Da ms, 112. 

Davis, Jefferson, 17-20. 









', 79 

, 93 

, 107. 

"Death of Stephen D. Lee," by Dunbar 
Rowland, 5, 6. 

Delassus, Lt. Col., re letter to from Capt. 
Guion, 27, 34-35, 46; 27; 34, 35, 37, 
39, 45. 

Dernier, 113. 

Demler, Capt., 30 note, 
97, 109, 111. 113. 

Departure of Spaniards, 

Derbigny, Mr., 35. 

Deserters, punishment of, 

Detroit, 29. 

Devine, 112. 

Devine, Samuel, 112. 

Dickey, 78. 

Diddep, Archibald, 110. 

Director, Miss. Dept. Archives and His- 
tory, see Rowland, Dunbar. 

Distribution of presents to Chickasaws, 
36, 37. 

Documentary history, publication of, 17. 

Documents, Gov. Holmes administra- 
tion, 14. 

Dollon, 112. 

Dorsey, Dr., 76, 77, 79, SO, 99. 

Dotton, Wm., 111. 

Dougherty, Capt. Thos., 110. 

Downingstown, OS. 

Draft, 85. 

"Dr. James O'Hara, Esq., contractor, in 
account with U. S.," 109. 

Drouilard, Geo., 33. 

Duffey, 111. 

Duffle, Xeil, 110. 

Dunbar, William. 92 note. 

Election of Director of Archives and 
History, 7. 8. 

Election of Trustees. . 

Ellicott, Andrew, 29, 05, 68, 81, SS, S9, 
91, 94, 99, 103. 

Elmer, Lieut., 109. 

English Archives, transcripts of. re Miss, 
history, 10; re America and West In- 
dies. 10. 

Indians. 9^, 96. 

lnut Hills, 60, 73. 74; 


Entertainment of 
Evacuation, of W 
of Natchez. 73, 
Evans, 1 13. 
Evans, Ewd., 1 13 

: Evans, T. M 


t. re William Dun- 


Evans, Lewis. 1 1 .'». 
Explorer and Scienti: 
^ bar, 02. 

Fardevous, M., 46. 
Fascines, contention, 00, 
Fergus* >n, Evennel h. 51 . 
Fero, Ensign, 90, 100. 
Fife, Isaac? 70. 

Financial report of Dep1 of Archives 
and History, 1907-1908, 2 1. 


Flag of Tombigbee volunteers, 23. 
Flags, Spanish and U. S., re salutations 

to, 35. 
Florida, West, 11. 
Ford, Worthington C, 12. 
Fort Adams, 4S, 50, and note, 52, 53, 

55, 57, 59,. 68, 73, 76, 93.- 
Fort Massac, 20, 30, 30, 43, 46, 53, 59, 

Fort Natchez, see Natchez. 
Fort Tombigbee, 7S, 87, SS, 05. 
Fort Villa Gavbso, 47. 
Fort Walnut Hills, see Walnut Hills. 
Fort Washington, 20, 76, SO. 
Foy, Mr., 67. 
Frankford, Henrv, 110. 
Franklin, 10. 
Frazier, John. 07. 
Freeman, Mr., 70, S9. 
Freeman, Maj. Constant, 71 ; letter to 

from Capt. Guion, 73-74; 76, 77, 78, 

79, 80. 
French Archives, transcripts of, re Miss. 

history, 10, 12. 
Friendship of Colbert and Piamingo, re 

U. S., 43. 
Gaithers. Col.. 00. 
Galbreath, commissary agent, 55. 
Gallawav, Bishop Charles" B., 5, 6. 7, 8, 

Galvez, re occupation of West Florida, 

Gano, GO. 
Gayoso, Gov., 25, 36; letter to from 

Capt. Guion. 38, 47, 63-64, 04-05: 40, 

41, 47, 51, 52, 00 note, 02, 03, 04, 05, 

08, 91, 93, 107. 
General orders, messages and corres- 
pondence, re war of 1812, 14. 
George, Senator Jas., 21. 
Gerrv. Humphrey, 110, 111. 
Gilla'rd, jos.. 30." 
Golden, fames. 59. 
Good speed, 111, 112. 
Gorlev, Jas., 111). 
Grafton, 11.4. 
Grande, Sergt. Augustin, letter to from 

Capt. Guion, 35. 
Grand, Pre. Gov., re letter to. from Capt. 

Guion, 100-107, 107-108. 
Gregg, Lieut., 30 note, 31, 100. 
Green, E. B., 12. 

Green, Jas., re punishment of, 79. 
Guion, Capt., sketch of, 25-27; letters of, 

27-10S; 100, 110. Ill, 112. 
Guion, Capt., list of letters of: to Col. 

Delassus, 27. 0,1, 35; to Ensign Wil- 
liam Scott. 2X; to Gen Wilkinson. 28. 

20, 31-34, 42-44, 52, 53, 7 I, 82, 93 95; 

to unknown and unsigned, 2'.'; to Sec. 

of War, James McKenrv, 30, 31, 36- 
38, 48-51, OS, 00, 77. 78, 91, 92; to 
Sergt. Grande, 35; to Gov. Gavoso, 38, 
41, 47, 03, 04; to Baron D. Caronde- 
let, 39, 40; to Lieut. Pope, 40, 70; to 
Capt. Zebulon Pike, 44-40, 56, 57; to 
Mai. Isaac Craig, 53, 54, S3, 84; to Dr. 
Geo. PfeirTer, 54. 55; to Col. O'Hara, 
55, 50; to Lieut. Campbell, 57, o.S; to 
Samuel Mitchell, 5S, 59, 60, 05, 06, 
07, 00. 70. 87, SS, 02, 03, 95-96; to 
Capt. E: Beauregard. 50; to Capt. 
Stephen Minor; to Capt. Heath, 72; 
to , duplicate by But- 
ler, 73; to Maj. Constant Freeman, 73 
and note; to Daniel Clark, 75. 83; to 
Maj. Wm. Kersev. 75, 78, 79, So, S2, 
83, SO, 87, SS, SO, 00, 91; to James 
O'Hara, S5; to Gen. John Wilkin s, 86; 
to Ensign McClarv, 89; to Col. Ham- 
tramck/96, 97. 

Gulf port, re teachers' association. 

Halfway Hill, 27. 

Hail, 112. 

Hall, John, 111. 

Hamtramck, 93 note. 94: letter to from 
Capt. Guion, 00-07, 100-101; 08, 00, 
100, 101, 102. 

Hanton, 51. 

Harragan, Mr., 53. 

Harrington, 110. 

Harrington, 112. 

Havens, 112. 

Havens, Stephen, 110. 

Hawkins, Col., 110. 

Hawkins, Mr., 00. 

Hazell, 112. 

Headquarters, S3. 

Hebron, Hon. John L., S. 

Hellon, 112. 

Henderson, Mrs. Lizzie George. 21. 

HenJev. 93. 

Heth.'Capt., 30. note, 31. 53: letter to 
from Capt. Guion, 72: '47, 113. 

Hincks, Edward. 110. 

Hinson, 113. 

Hippie. Peter. 112. 

Historical Association. American, re 
meeting of. 11. 12. 

Historical | ,21. 

Holmes, Gov. David, 14. 

Hopefield, 37, 12. 50. 

! e Ci ek. 51. 

Howard, Col., 4 1, 4'.', 50, 52. 

Howard, Col. Chas., 42 note, 43, 0"'. SI, 

Hudson. 10. 

1 lent, Messrs., 50. 

10; t Vbij 0. 7$ nd note, 105, 108. 

Hunt, Jeremiah, 10S. 



Hunt, Jesse, 78. 

Huwanies, 94, 98. 

Hvde, Lieut., 103. 

Hyde, Mr., 104. 

Indian Agent. 58. 

Intrigues of Burr and Wilkinson, 11. 

Investigators, re Miss. Dept. Archives 
and History, 20. 

Irwin Rusself Memorial, 22. 

Jackson, Andrew, re capture of Pensa- 
cola, 11. 

Jamerson, J. F., 12. 

Jefferson College, 14. 

Jefferson, Thomas, 19. 

John, Capt., 60, 07. 

Johnson, Peter, 59. 

Johnson, William, 92. 

Jones, 113. 

Jones, Sr., 112. 

Jones, Jr, 112. 

Jones, Mr., 70, So. 

Jones, Francis, 84. 

Jones, Dr. R. W., 5, G, 7, 8, 9, 10. 

Jones, T., SO, 113. 

Jones, Wm„ Jr., Ill, 112. 

-Journal, military, of Maj. Guion, 27-10S. 

Kaskias, 103. 

Kersey, Maj. Wm., 09, 70, 71, note: letter 
to from Capt. Guion, 71-72, 75-70, 
78-79, SO, 82-83, S6-S7, 8S-S9, 90-91 ; 

Kin cannon, A. A., S. 

Knox, Mr., 40. 

Knoxville, 32, 45, 48, 51, CO, 93, 98. 

Lacy, 112. 

Lake pont Chartrain, 29, OS. 

Lee, 112. 

Lee, Jacob, 111. 

Lee, R. E.. 19. 

Lee. Stephen D.. re death of, 5; re trus- 
teeship of, 5, 0; re presidency of, 6, 8. 

Lefore, Laurent, 111. 

"Legislation," lists of, 8; re Hon. John 
L^ Hebron, S, 9. 

Legrave, Louis. 103. 

Letters, military, of Capt. Guion, 27- 
108; of Lion. Dunbar Rowland, 18. 

Lewis, Caot., 79. 

Library, 22, 23. 

Library of Congress, 17. 

Line of Partition, marking of, 91, 92, 93, 
. 94, 99. 

Lipscomb, Dabney, 8. 

Loftus Heights, camp, 102, 104, 100, 
107, 108.' 

Longhair, Capt., 33. 

Louck, 11 2. 

Louisiana, 11, 30, 10 1. 

Louisiana Purchase, states of, 12. 

Lowrey, Gen. M. P., 21. 

Lvnn, Mr., 84. 

Lyon, 104. • 

Lyonnais, Charles Morrell, 104. 

Madison, President, 19. 

Magee, Mr., 50, 57. 

Mallaby, 111. 

Man, 112. 

Marks, Lieut., 93. 

Marschalk, Lieut., 109.. 

Maryland, 28. 

Mason, Martin, 110. 

Mason, Robt., 110. 

Mathews, Gen., 69. 

Maumee, River, 26. 

Mayes, Dr. Edward, 5, 6, 7,- . 

Mayo, Miss Mary Helms, 22. 

Mead, Gov. Cowles, 14. 

Meeting of the American Historical As- 
sociation, 11, 12. 

Meeting of Board of Trustees, account 
' of, 0, 7. 

Memphis, 36 note. 

Meredith, 111. 

Mexican War, 23. 

Millar, John, 112. 

Military Journal of Isaac Guion, 27-108. 

Mimm, John, 103. 

Minor, Maj., 75. 

Minor, Capt. Stephen, 25 note, 60, 61 ; 
re letter to from Capt. Guion, 60-61 ; 
62-63; 68, 81, 82, 92. 

"Mississippi as a Province, Territory and 
State," by Claiborne, 25. 

Mississippi Daughters of the Confeder- 
acy, 23. 

Mississippi Department of Archives and 
History, trustees of, 5. 

Mississippi Hall of Fame, rules govern- 
ing, 7. 

Mississippi Provincial Archives, Eng- 
lish dominion, 17. 

Mississippi Territorial Archives, lists of 
executive, 13, 14, 15; lists of legisla- 
tive, 15, 16. 

Mississippi Vallev, states of. 11, 12. 

Mitchell, Mr., 60^ 68, 76, 101. 

Mitchell, Samuel, letter to from Capt. 
Guion, 5S-59, 60, 65-66, 66-07. 69- 
70, 87-S8, 92-93, 101-102; 9 1. 95, 96. 

Mizell, Win., 51. 

Mobile, 81, 91, 95, 96, 98. 

Montgomery, 112. 

Montgomery, Gen., 25. 27. 

Montgomery, Geo., 110. 

Moody, 111'. 

Moore, James, 72. 113. 

Moore, Samuel, 72. 

Mostubbe, Tootem, 32 note. 

Mountain Leader, 12. 19, 58. 

Mountjoye, Marquis, 67, SO. 


Mv.lvaney. 112. 

McCartv, Lieut., 92. 

McClain, Mr., 45. 52. 

McClary, Ensign, letter to from Capt. 

Guion, 89-90. 
McClean, John, 103. 
McCleary, 103. . 
McClun?, Capt.. 23. 
McClung, 42, 45. 52. 
McCollister, 111. 

McCoskrv, Dr., 30. 57, 76, 77, 81. 
McDonald, 112. 
McDonald, Alex. 112. 
McFee, John, 111. 
McGee, 84. 
McGrew, John, 95. 
McGuire, Anw., 113. 
McHenrv, James, 25: letter to from 

Capt. "Guion, 30-34, 3G-3S, 48-51, 68- 

69, 77-7S, 91-92, 9S-99, 102-104. 105- 

106; LOS. 
Mclntoshville, 37 note. 
McKee, Col., 102. 
McKee, John, 29, 99. 
McQuillin, 109, 113. 
Natchez, 26, 27, 29. 36, 38, 39, 40, 43, 

55, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65. 68, 69, 70, 

71, 72, 73 ,74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82, 

S3, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 95, 

96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 105. 107. 
Neville, Gen., 54, 84. 
New Madrid, post, 27. 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 

34, 45, 46. 
New Orleans, 29, 47, 72, 73, 75, 76, 80, 

81, 82, 85, 90. 
New York, 27, 59, 82. 
Norton, Dan, 112. 
Nouse, Michael, 111. 
Oconee River, headquarters, 60. 
Officers' pay account, 109. 
Official and" Statistical Register of 1908, 

16, 17. 
O'Hara, Col., 55 , 56. 
O'Hara, Edward, 84. 
O'Hara, Dr. James, 78, letter to from 

Capt. Guion, 84-85; re Capt. Guion, 

109; re Wm. Dotton, 111. 
Orangery, 46. 
Orleans, 29, 38, 43, 48, 04. 67, 71, 75, 80, 

83, 87, 91, 1H7. 
Osmun, Benajah, 27. 
Ottamustubbav, King, 95. 
Ottawas. 66. 
Pan ton & Leslie, 51 . 
Papers, Burr, 14. 
Parker. James, 110. 
Pay-roll of soldiers, list of names and 

amounts, 111. 
Pensacola, 11, 51, 81, 91. 
Perry, Hardy, 89, 91. 

Peter (the porcupine), 56. 

Pevton, Mr., 101. 

Pfeiffer, Dr. George, 32, 46; letter to 

from Capt. Guion, 54-55; 56, 57, 90; 

110, 111. 
Pfeiffer, Mrs., 54. 
Philadelphia, 60, 66, 70, 106. 
Piamingo, 43, 49, 50. 
Pierce, Capt. John, 73, 79, 100; re death 

of, 113. 
Pike, Capt., 52. 
Pike, Capt. Z'., 32, 33; letter to from 

Capt. Guion, 44-46, 56-57. 
Pike, Mrs., 57. 
Pippin, 112. 
Pittsburg, 54, 57, 84. 
Pollock, 112. 
Pollock, Wm., 110. 
Pontotoc, 37. 

Pope, Agt. U. S., 29, 33. 103. 
Pope, Lieut., 30; letter to from Capt. 

Guion, 40, 70-71 ; 40 note, 62, 69, SS, 

109/110, 111, 113. 
Pope, P:, 113. 
Portraits, historical, 21. 
Poushamastubby, 65 note, 67. 
Power, Thomas, 92. 
Preston, Prof. J. R.. 5, 6, S. 
Publication of documentary history, 17. 
Publication plans, 23. 
Puttawattamies . 
Quebec, 25, 27. 

Ouin, Dr. James. 55, 50, 84, 85, 86, 109. 
Rabb, Andrew, 92. 
Receipts of arms and supplies. 14. 
Red shoes, 67. 
Register, Official and Statistical, of 

190S, 16, 17. 
Report of Lieut. Pope, re conduct to- 
ward Spanish, 40. 
Report, of Stucker, 29. 
Resignations and commissions, 14. 
Resignations, civil and military, 14. 
Rhoads, Henry, 111. 
Rhodes, 112. 

Richard, Capt. Wm., 113. 
Rickard, Capt., 72. 7!'. 
Riley, Dr. Franklin L . 5. 0, 7. S. 
Roberson, Frank, 10. 
Roberts, Mr.. 07, 69, 70. 
Robertson, 111. 
Robertson, Jas., 112. 
Rockwell. 1 12. 
Root, 112. 
Root, Hewit, 110. 
Rowland, Dunbar. S. 9. 12; re letters of, 

Rules, changes in sui ested, 21. 
Rules governing pla< ing pictures in Mis- 

sissi] pi Hall of Fame, 7. 


Runners, establishment of, 60. 

Russell, Irwin, memorial of, 22. 

Sanders, 112. 

Sargent, Gov. Winthrop, re archives of 
administration of, table of, 13, 26, 

Saxton, 112. 

Saxton, Henry, 112. 

Scott, Ensign, re letter to from Capt. 
Guion, re commission. 2S, 30, 35, 109. 

Scott, Col. William, 26, 27. 

Seamers, Sergt., 00. 

Shambough.'B. F., 12. 

Shanklin, Lieut., 96. 

Sickness, treatment of. 101. 

Simmers, Wra., letter to from Capt. Gui- 
on, 104-105. 

Sistel, Chas.; 112. 

Sketch of Maj. Guion, 25-2/. 

Skidmore, 112, 

Smith, 112. 

Smith, Moore, 54. 

Smith, Robt., 110. 

Soldiers' duty, SO, 00. 

Sorker, John, 112. 

Soto, Lieut. Ferdinand La, 05. 

Spanish archives, transcripts of, 11. 

Spanish commandant. 30. 

Spanish governor. 30 note. 

Spanish incitements. 42. VS. 

Spanish manners and customs, S7, SS. 
04, 05, 103. 

Spanish occupation of Miss., 11. 

Spanish post, re strengthening of, 25, 33. 

Spanish preparation and departure, 50, 
60, 73, 74. 

Sparks, John, 1 10. 

St. Francois River, 43. 

St. Genevieve, 104. 

St. Louis, 30, 43, 48, 103, 104. 

Statistical and Official Register of 100S, 
16, 17. 

Steele, Gov. John, 13. 

Stewart, John, 110. 

Stoddard, 111. 

Stokes, James, 113. 

Stucker, Philip. 29, 30, 103. 

Su£ ested changes in rules. 21. 

Swan, P. M., LOO. 

"Talk and belt," 66, *',7, 69; re delivery 
of, 70. 

Tample , Mrs. Sarita, 2;}. 

Taylor, Lieut., 27. 

Tellico, 0(). 

Territorial archives, Miss., lists of ex- 
ecutive. !."., 14, 15; legislative. 15, 16. 

Thompson , 112. 

Thompson, 1 Lugh, 1 10. 

Thompson, Hon. R. H. f 5, S, 9, 10. 

Thome, 32. 

Thwaites, R. G., 12. 

Tippard, Thos., 93. 

Toler, Mr., 53. 54, 56, S4. 

Tombigbee volunteers, 23. 

Transcripts of English archives, descrip- 
tion of , 10. 

Transcripts of French archives, descrip- 
tion of, 10. 

Transcripts of Spanish archives, descrip- 
tion of, 11. 

Troubles, re Forts Xatchez and Walnut 
Hill, 36, 30; re Spanish, 45; re Wolf's 
friend, 48, 40. 

Trudeau, 104. 

Trustees of Mississippi Department of 
Archives and History, 5; re meeting 
of, 6, 7; re confirmation of, 9, 10. 

Turkeystown, 98. 

Turner, Capt., 50. 

Turner, Henry, 100, 105. 

Turnham, .112. 

Turnham, Fred. 110. 

Use of the Department's collection, 20. 

Valuation of forts, 71, 72. 

Vance, Lieut., 108. 

Vicksburg, 5, 23. 

Vidal, Capt. Jas., 82. 

Vincennes port, 32. 

Virginians, 9S. 

Visit to Washington, re committee of 
seven, 12. 

Wade, Capt., 72, 75, 70, 78, 79, S3, 100, 

Wadman, Widow, re Capt. Guion, 101. 

W T alker, A., 112. 

Walker, Abraham, 111. 

Walker, D., 112. 

Walker. David, 110. 

Walnut Hills fort, 26. 33, 38. 30, 59, 64, 
66. 68, 00; re condition of, 71; re 
evacuation of, 73. 

War office, 03. 

War with France, 96. 

Washington, President. 10. 

Washington. Miss., 27. 

Wavne, Gen., 26, 27. 53 note, 60. 

Webber, Prof. W. L., 22. 

Wells, 100. 

West, Acting Gov. Cato, 1 1. 

Wheeler, 112. 

Wheeler. Ed.. 111. 

Whetstone, Jasper, 92. 

White. Prof' |. M ., 5. 6, S. 

Wilkin >. Gen . j< »1 

Guion, SO. 
Wilkins. Stewart 

in, letter to from Cant. 

, 7;;, 78, 85. 



ilkinson, Gen., re intrigues of. 11; 25; 
letter to from Capt. Guion, 28. 29: 42- 
44. 52-53. 74, 80- 



20, 31-34, 32, 30 


, 39. 41 

52, 53, 63, 80, 82. 91, 
99, 100, 102, 10C, 107. 
Villiams, runner, 102. 
Villiams, John Sharp, 21. 
rVilliams, Gov. Robt., 14, 20. 
.Villiams n, Mr., 99, 100. 
.Vilson, S4. 


, 42-44, 

94, 95, 

Wilson, Samuel, 105. 
Winter, Elisha, 44, 51, 107, 108. 
Wolf's friend, 30, 37, 42, 49, 53, 07, 70. 
Wood, John, 110. 
Wool-Berrys, Wm„ 111. 
Wright, 112. 

Writings and speeches of Jefferson Da- 


, Samuel. 

C, 7S. 







October I, 1908, to October 1, 1909. 





Department of Archives and History, 

Jackson, Miss., October 1, 1909. 
To Dr. R. W. Jones, Dr. Edward Mayes, Judge R. H. Thompson, 

President J. R. Preston, Dr. -Franklin L. Riley, Pro]. J. M. 

White and Pro]. G. H. Branson, Trustees of the Mississippi 

Department of Archives and History: 

Gentlemen: — I have the honor to submit my administrative 
and financial report as Director of the Mississippi Department 
of Archives and History for the fiscal year ending September 30, 

Death of Bishop Charles B. Galloway. 

Before proceeding with the report of the work of the Histori- 
cal Department I am called upon again, within the short period 
of one year, to chronicle the death of an honored and beloved 
member of the Board of Trustees, and to give expression to our 
sense of the heavy loss sustained by this body. At our hist 
meeting w r e recorded the death of Gen. Stephen D. Lee, a typical 
representative of the highest ideal of the Old South; to-day we 
record the passing away of Bishop Charles B. Galloway, who was 
the exponent of the highest purposes, the holiest aspirations, 
the truest courage and the most steadfast convictions of the 
South of to-day. He was truly one of the ablesi spokesmen of 
the best thought of our country. 

Measuring the loss of such a man in the currcni pages of our 
history, for myself I confess that it seems well nigh irreparable. 
Not only did every public good sueer depri\ ation, but there were 
few hearts in Mississippi that did not feel a seme of personal 
loss at his death. The friends 'of every good cause felt that 


their ablest advocate was gone, and the poor and humble mourned 
a sincere friend. 

Bishop Galloway appealed to every walk in life. In the affairs 
of the State he was a wise counselor; in the great conferences of 
his Church his was the most eloquent and convincing voice; 
when associated with the learned men of his day he impressed 
them with the accuracy of his knowledge and the profundity of 
his learning, and in the daily intercourse with his fellowmen his 
genial manner and hopeful outlook made everyone about him 
happier a.nd better, while his sympathetic nature drew the lowly 
and friendless to him for advice and aid. Possessing all the 
great qualities of intellect that convince and persuade men's 
minds he was, in addition, endowed 'with the magnetic powers — 
a sweetness of disposition, a generosity of soul and an attractive- 
ness of person that win men's hearts. Without a trace of dog- 
matism he was resolute and self-reliant, and his own superb 
confidence in the justice of any cause which he espoused never 
failed to inspire men with faith in his leadership. His gift of 
humor, which was as free and untrammeled as the mountain 
breezes, was of that delightful quality that fosters optimism, 
and no soul that ever breathed was more hopeful or more joyous. 
There is not time, nor is this perhaps the place, for a lengthy 
mention of the life and character of Bishop Charles B. Galloway — 
that demands a time and place all its own — but so readily do our 
words run to eulogy at the mention of his name that we find it 
difficult to restrain ourselves in paying tribute to him at any 
time or place. And to none, perhaps, would praise of him sound 
sweeter than to this little coterie, who have, from year to year, 
, assembled with him in this hall to give aid and encouragement 
to the cause of history. He himself possessed much of the ability 
and characteristics of the great historian, and I have frequently 
thought what a noble history lie could have written of his native 
State, whose ever}' heroic deed, intricate problem, hope and fear, 
• and sorrow and joy, he was as familiar with as he was with the 
highways that traverse its length and breadth. He was always 
profoundly interested in the historical wotk of the State, and 
his association with it was so close and intimate that lie under- 
stood every budding activity and finished task as well, it seemed, 
as if it had been his hand that set it in motion. There was no 

.„,..■. .-^*~y-„ 

time during my absence that he could not walk into the State 
Historical Department and give minute instructions relative to 
any work in hand. And, indeed, for a wide comprehension of 
the needs of- every work that affects the public or private good 
of the people of Mississippi, and a readiness to grasp it in all its 
details, I have never seen his equal. His was the busiest life I 
ever knew, and the multitudinous tasks in which he was con- 
stantly engaged, and the pleasure they seemed to afford him, 
gave evidence of capacities which excited equally my admiration 
and astonishment. 

Bishop Galloway was endowed with great natural capacities; 
he was both receptive and responsive. He acquired and received 
knowledge readily, not only that which is obtained from purely 
intellectual pursuits, but the richer and more potent that comes 
from the experiences of life. His powers of responsiveness were 
so large and full that one, when in his presence, felt their influence 
before any word had been spoken. With these two great forces 
forever at play within his nature life presented him a larger 
opportunity and a broader field than fall to the lot of most men ; 
and it seemed that he knew better than most men how to secure 
large results from his efforts. All that he did he did well, and 
whether wielding his mighty powers in Church or State his 
triumphs seemed, truly, winged victories whose pinions were 
bathed in a light other than earth's. 

I am not yielding to the 'glamour of personal admiration, as 
natural as that would be coming from me to him, but making a 
careful estimate of men when I say that had he chosen public 
life for his arena he would have ranked a worthy compeer with 
Davis, George, Lamar, Walthall and Ins later brilliant con- 
temporary, Williams; and -in some of the important essentials 
of a well rounded life he was the superior of them all. 

I trust that it will not be taken for weakness when I %y t) a 
despair seized my heart at the first realization of the loss Missis- 
sippi had sustained when this wise counselor and aide 1< 
ceased to be. What a sudden checking it seemed of ail our 
noblest springs of action! What a dimming of all the magnifi- 
cent hopes that starred our progress! But whatever thoughts 
that we, in our human limitations, may ent< a ol man's life 
bevond the crave, we do know that he live: ; in has 



Charles B. Galloway lives to-day, and will live henceforth, in 
the recorded deeds, hopes and aspirations of his great life; and 
these Will continue to influence the destiny of this people. 

I could continue unweariedly to recount the virtues of this 
beloved and favorite son of our Commonwealth, for the magnifi- 
cent forces of his wonderful life stir me as little else has ever 
done, but words fail me in the portrayal of the full strength and 
power of his matchless nature— Sir Galahad was not purer, 
Savonarola was not more faithful nor Coeur de Lion more intrepid 
than this spurred and booted soldier of the Cross — a figure 
clothed in the singular grace of old knighthood with the ardor 
of St. Paul, springing, full armed, in this modern age to the 
rescue of his fellowmen of whatsoever race or clime — a figure to 
forever illumine the pages of our history. And though we may 
never see his like again, is it not enough to give us hope of our 
civilization when we contemplate that this life was nourished at 
Mississippi's breast? Is it not enough to inspire us to think that 
somewhere about us is still the source from which it drew its 
strength? And are these thoughts not sufficient to cause us to 
rest secure of the future? 

Minutes, Board of Trustees. 

The Board of Trustees of the Mississippi Department of 
Archives and History held its Seventh Annual Meeting Novem- 
ber 7, 190S, with the following members present: Bishop Charles 
B. Galloway, Dr. Edward Hayes, Prof. J. R. Preston. Dr. Frank- 
lin L. Riley, Mr. J. M. White and Prof. G. H. Brunson On 
motion of Bishop Galloway, Dr. Jones was made chairman, and 
called the meeting to order. The annual administrative and 
financial report of the Director was submitted and approved. 
Dr. Jones introduced the following resolution, which was 

Resolved by the Board of Trustees, That the hours for public business of 
the Department o{ Archives and History be from 9:00 a. m. to 4:00 p. m., 
daily except Sund , and that the Director be authorized and instructed 
to have posted on the doors of his apartments in the State Capitol the 
following: Office hours: 9:00 a. m. to 4:00 r. m. 

Dr. Jones and Dr. Riley having been appointed to prepare 
resolutions on the death of Gen. Stephen D. Lee, the President 

of the Board, presented the following, which were unanimously 

Whereas, In the providence of God, Gen. Stephen Dill Lee, the dis- 
tinguished President of the Board of Trustees of the Department of 
Archives and History, after a long, most useful and honored life, died in 
Vicksburg, Miss., May 28, 190S, at his post of duty: 

Therefore be it resolved, That we put on record our high esteem of him 
as a man, a citizen, a soldier. 

' His career as an officer in the Confederate army presented an example 
of promotions that is almost unparalleled for rapidity: beginning as a 
captain in South Carolina, his native State, he rose to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-general, having command of a department and later of a corps 
in the. Army of Tennessee. In every position he displayed bravery and 
devotion that made him conspicuous. As a citizen, since 1865, he has 
served as a State Senator and member of the Constitutional Convention of 
1890. His longest and most effective public service was as President of the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Mississippi, where in association 
with Gen. J. Z. George, Mr. W. B. Montgomery and others, he established 
and maintained that excellent institution for industrial education. 

His services in connection with the history of Mississippi and of the 
Southern States generally were marked by fervor and ability, with a 
discriminating sense of justice that entitles him to the gratitude of his 
fellow citizens. His conduct as a man, dealing with his fellowmen, 
measured up to the highest standard of integrity and honor. 

Resolved, That the Director of this Department be authorized to offer 
a copy of these resolutions to the daily papers for publication and to 
send a copy to his son, Blewitt Lee, Esq., of Chicago. 

The election of a President of the Board being in order, the 
names of Bishop Charles B. Galloway and Dr. R. W. Jones were 
presented; both sought to retire in favor of the other. A ballot 
resulted in the selection of Dr. Jones. A Vice-President having 
been provided for by an amendment to Rule 2, nominations for 
that office were in order, and the following names were presented: 
Bishop Charles B. Galloway, Dr. Edward Mayes, Prof. J. R. 
Preston and Judge R. H. Thompson. The ballot resulted in the 
selection of Bishop Galloway. 

The election of a successor to General Lee was postponed until 
the next meeting, as confirmation by the Senate was necessary 
before service could begin. 

After a general discussion of the historical work of the State 
the Board adjourned. R. \V. Jones, 

Dunbar Rowland, President. 

y Secretary 


Richmond Meeting American Historical Association. 

The annual meeting of the American Historical Association 
was held in Washington and Richmond December 28-31, 190S. 
During the year a special effort had been made to increase the 
membership of the Association in the South with good results; 
and the interest shown by southern men was marked. The same 
was true of the membership of the entire country, as there was 
a record attendance at the meeting. The coming of the Asso- 
ciation to the South on two occasions has been the means of 
greatly increasing its influence and effectiveness as a national 

In the last report it was stated, that I had proposed a plan to 
the Association by which, through the co-operation of the States 
of the Mississippi Valley, a calendar of the French archives 
relating to American history could be prepared and published. 
The proposed plan was reported to the Conference of Historical 
Departments and Societies held at the Richmond meeting and 
was adopted. The estimated cost of the calendar is $2,000.00, 
and that amount lias been pledged by the Mississippi Department 
of Archives and History, the Alabama Department of Archives 
and History, the Wisconsin Historical Society, the Chicago His- 
torical Society, the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, the 
Indiana Historical Society, the Illinois Historical Library, the 
Howard Memorial Library, the Iowa Historical Society, the 
Missouri Historical Society and the Kansas Historical Society. 
This co-operation on the part of historical agencies for the first 
time establishes a precedent which has an important bearing 
upon the very valuable undertaking of securing transcripts of 
the original European sources of American history. The prep- 
aration and publication of a complete calendar of the French 
archives concerning American history will enable the States of 
the Mississippi Valley to secure transcripts in which they are 
interested without the expense of sending representatives 
abroad. It will also enable them to avoid expensive and un- 
necessary duplication in publishing documentary history. 

To know that certain archive collections contain essential 
materials of American history is valuable knowledge, but to 
have a calendar winch abstracts the contents of each important 

. .wMMv.l*." *• 

document is of far greater value; and this is the object of the 
calendar of the French archives. Such an undertaking has never 
before been inaugurated in this country, and it is a matter of 
some satisfaction to feel that we have been placed in a position 
of leadership in the movement. 

English Transcripts. _ 

At the time of the last report the work of transcribing English 
archives concerning Mississippi history had been completed. 
An abstract of land grants issued during the English dominion 
has since been added to the collection. Now that the series is 
complete, and in order that students may have the list of 
volumes in one place a tabulated statement follows: 

Public Record, War Office, Secretary of State, Original Correspondence. 
Vol. 15 (1). Military papers of Major Farmer, 1763. 



















25S (8) 1770-71. 

259 (9) 1771-72. 

260 (10) 1772-73. 

America and West Indies. 

Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Major Farmer and Governor 

Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Governor Johnstone and Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Browne. 

Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Governor Johnstone and Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Browne. 

Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Lieutenant-Governor Browne 
and Governor Eliot. 

Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Lieutenant-Governor Browne 
and Governor Eliot. 

Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Lieutenant-Governor Browne 
and Lieutenant-Governor Durnford. 

Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Governor Chester. 

Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Governor Chester. 

Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Governor Chester. 


261 (11) 1773-74. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of State from Governor Chester. 

262 (12) 1774-76. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of State from Governor Chester. 
263(13)1776-77. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Governor Chester. 

264 (14) 1777-78. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of State from Governor Chester. 

265 (15) 177S-S0. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 

tary of State from Governor Chester. 
266(16)1780-81. Original papers. Letters and enclosures to the Secre- 
tary of State from Governor Chester. 

Board of Trade, West Florida. 

Abstracts of letters patent relating to the State of Mississippi selected 
from Volumes (34) 1772 to 1779-17S0; (24) grants, leases, indentures, 
etc., June, 1768 to 1772; (27) leases and mortgages; (32) grants of land, 
1778-1780; (32) grants of land, 1768-1770. 

The English collection of transcripts has been designated as 
Mississippi Provincial Archives, English Dominion. 

Fr en ch Tra nscripts . 

The largest collection of original source material dealing with 
Mississippi history is in the custody of the French Ministry of 
the Colonies. Since the last report four additional volumes of 
transcripts have been received, making fourteen volumes in all. 
This collection was bound in Paris before delivery; and the 
permanent form in which the volumes have been placed is much 
better than having the transcripts sent unbound. The price of 
binding in the United States is about four times as much as it 
is in France and England, and this difference makes a nice sum 
in the aggregate. 

The French transcripts on tile cover the period, 1G7S-172S, 
and give a detailed account of the colonization of the Lower 
Mississippi Valley, which had its beginning in this State. 

The transcription of French archives relating to Mississippi 
will continue until the documentary history of the period, 167S- 
17G3, is complete. At the present rate of expenditure it will 
take about two years to secure the designated documents of that 
period in our history. 


Spanish Transcripts. 

The Department's transcripts of Spanish archives relating to 
Mississippi history have been classified and bound since the last 
report into nine large volumes. The collection begins in 1759 
and ends in 1S20. The documents to be copied were carefully 
selected and are essential source materials of the Spanish 
dominion in Mississippi. The series has been designated Missis- 
sippi Provincial Archives, Spanish Dominion. 

The Spanish transcripts have attracted general attention from 
students of Spain in America and have been listed by the Depart- 
ment of Historical Research of the Carnegie Institution for the 
benefit of interested investigators. It is the policy of the 
Department to encourage the use of its collections by serious 
students of history everywhere, and to throw around their use 
as few restrictions as possible. 

Military History of Mississippi. 

The publication of a military history of Mississippi in honor, 
more especially, of the Confederate veterans of the State, has 
been one of the most popular undertakings of the Department 
and has been received with general approval. Its publication in 
the Official and Statistical Register, while it was the only arrange- 
ment that could be made at the time, was not the best plan of 
presenting it to the people. It should have been published in a 
separate volume and an effort was made to present it in that way, 
but the cost was prohibitive. It has been suggested that a new 
edition be issued as a separate publication, but up to this time 
the printing funds at the disposal of the Department have been 
insufficient. Quite a number of librarians have secured two 
copies of the Register -in order to take out the military history 
section for rebinding; their idea being that the title of the 
Register gives no hint that it contains a section devoted to the 
military affairs of the State. 

It may be possible, at some future time, by the preparation of 
additional data, to issue the military history as a separate 


A rch ive Class ifica tio n . 

In reporting on this subject last year it was stated that the 
archives of the territorial period had been carefully classified 
and made easily accessible to students. The classification of 
the State archives has been in progress during the past year and 
all materials originating between IS 17 and 1S40 have been syste- 
matically arranged for use. During the coming year, if other 
duties will allow, all the historical collections of the Department 
will be classified. I know of no other State which has even 
attempted such work. 

Portrait of Gov. David Holmes. 

A very valuable and interesting original oil portrait of Gov. 
David Holmes has been added to the Department's collection 
of historical portraits since the last report, through the generosity 
of Mr. Burwell McGuire and Miss Minnie H. McGuire, the grand- 
nephew and grandniece of Governor Holmes, of Berryville, Va. 

The portrait has an interesting history, which has been pre- 
served as a family tradition in the McGuire family. The story 
of the portrait is, that during the administration of Governor 
Holmes the Mississippi Territorial Legislature had two portraits 
made of him, one for the Governor and the other for the Terri- 
tory. When Governor Holmes resigned the chief executive 
office in 1S26, on account of a complete breakdown in health, he 
returned to his old home in Winchester, Va., in 1827, and after 
five years of great suffering died at Jordon's Sulphur Springs, 
August 20, 1S32. 

Governor Holmes never married, and his property was inherited 
by his sisters, one of whom was Mrs. Elizabeth Holmes McGuire. 
The portrait was given to Mrs. McGuire, the grandmother of 
the donors, and it lias been carefully preserved in the family. 
During a visit to Washington 1 learned that the portrait had. 
been preserved by the McGuires at Berryville, and was given 
permission to have a copy made by a Washington artist. The 
copy was received July 14, 1007. In the spring of 1908 I again 
visited Washington and was invited to Woldnook, the home of 
the McGuires near Berryville to see the portrait. I accepted the 


invitation and enjoyed the perfect hospitality of one of the old 
Virginia homes. Mr. McGuire informed me that he and Miss 
McGuire were thinking of presenting the portrait to the State 
of Mississippi, but it would be necessary to consult with other 
members of the family before doing so. I found the portrait to 
be a most excellent piece of work with a very decided resemblance 
to the technic of Gilbert Stuart, the famous American portrait 
painter; and it is the opinion of the artist who copied it that it 
is the work of Stuart. 

After my return to Jackson I received a letter from Miss 
McGuire, stating that the family had decided to present the 
• portrait of Governor Holmes to the Historical Department. It 
was received April 25, 1909, and placed in the Hall of Fame soon 
after. The portrait is painted on a walnut slab and is in a per- 
fect state of preservation. 

I have tried in vain to find some trace of the companion por- 
trait which was retained by the territorial government. The 
loss of the portrait seems to be one of those mysteries the solu- 
tion of which afford so much pleasure to delvers into the unknown. 

Portrait of Governor A. H. Longino. 

It was during the administration of Governor Longino that 
the Department of Archives and History was established. He 
recommended and endorsed the bill which provided for its 
creation, and its success is very gratifying to him. It is there- 
fore very appropriate that his portrait should adorn the walls 
of the Capitol which was erected during his administration. 
It gives me pleasure to report that an excellent likeness of 
Governor Longino was received February 15, 1909, and now 
hangs in the State's Hall of Fame. 


The collection of interesting historical articles has grown so 
rapidly that additional cases are needed to display them. This 
part of the Department's work never fails to inspire interest m 
the people of the State; it is valuable as the means by which 
popular support is gamed and has an educational value besides. 


The Legislature will be asked for funds for the purchase of more 
display cases. 


It hardly seems possible that the apartments assigned to the 
use of the Department six years ago should now be inadequate, 
but such is the case. There is not wall space in the Hall of 
Fame for more than two portraits. The museum, which was 
temporarily located in the hall, devoted to historical portraits, 
has grown so rapidly that it requires a large room in which to 
display the collections. The Hall of History, devoted to his- 
torical manuscripts, books, newspaper files and publications is 
very much crowded, and the two rooms used for offices are in 
the same condition. These conditions will continue to grow 
worse, and some provision should be made to remedy them. 

It has been suggested that the Old Capitol, if properly repaired, 
and made practically fireproof, would be an ideal place for the 
Historical Department, and I am inclined to that opinion. 
There is no doubt that the building can be adequately preserv-ed, 
and if a willingess to remove the Department there would be 
an incentive to the preservation of the historic old Capitol it 
might be well, if the Board sees fit, to pass resolutions to that 
effect. It is probable that the Legislature, at the January 
session, will make an effort to settle the old Capitol question. 


The amount available for the purchase of books during the 
past year has been small, but many rare volumes relating to 
Mississippi history have been placed in the library. In addi- 
on to Mississippiana,and which is regarded as of the first impor- 
tance, it has been the policy of the Department to purchase a 
good collection of histories of the United States and of the various 
States for use as sources of information in editorial work in the 
publication of documentary history. By spending a small 
amount each year we shall be enabled to build up a fairly com- 
plete historical library for the specialist as well as for the general 
reader. The collection of printed materials of Mississippi his- 
tory is as good, I think, as there is in the country. 


Interest in the Historical Department Idea. 

The idea of history preservation by the State is growing, not 
only in the South but in the entire Mississippi Valley. It 
has been adopted by Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, North 
Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Arkansas, Nebraska, Kansas, 
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, New York, 
Maine and West Virginia. Not all of these have State Depart- 
ments of Archives and History; some have State supported 
historical societies and others have State supported departments, 
the only difference being in methods of government and adminis- 

This Department has taken an active interest in the propa- 
ganda looking to the establishment of State supported historical 
work, and during the past year I have had the pleasure of making 
addresses to the Louisiana Historical Society and to the Ohio 
Valley Historical Association, made up of the historical workers 
of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia and Western Penn- 
sylvania. I found an intelligent interest in these common- 
wealths in the idea of history preservation by the State. 

Writings and Speeches of Jefferson Davis. 


The collection and publication of the writings and speeches of 

Jefferson Davis, begun by the Department in May, 190S, has 
made satisfactory progress since the last report. In June I 
went to New Orleans and applied to the governing board of the 
Confederate Memorial Hall, which has the custody of the papers 
of Mr. Davis, for permission to have copies made of all documents 
in the collection which should appear in the publication. My 
request was granted in the true historical spirit and with the 
utmost good will. Permission to use this valuable collection, 
presented by Mrs. Davis to the Confederate Memorial Hall, is 
highly appreciated, for the reason that such a privilege lias never 
before been granted to an investigator. 

Presentation oj Publication to U. S. S. Mississippi. 

When the U. S. S. Mississippi visited Horn Island harbor, off 
the city of Pascagoula, June 1. 1909, for the purpose of receiving 


the splendid silver service purchased by the people of Mississippi 
as a gift to the battleship named in its honor, Dr. R. W. Jones, 
President of the Board of Trustees, in behalf of the Department 
of Archives and History, presented a library of Mississippi his- 
tory to the gallant vessel which bears our name. The library 
consists of "Mississippi as a Province, Territory and State," 
"Enclyclopedia of Mississippi History," 2 vols.; "Mississippi 
Official and Statistical Register, 1904;" "Mississippi Official and 
Statistical Register, 1908," and "Mississippi Territorial Archives, 
Vol. I." The volumes were bound in full red morocco and were 
presented in a handsome mahogany cabinet upon which was a 
copper plate inscribed: "Presented to the U. S. S. Mississippi, 
June 1, 1909, by the Mississippi Department of Archives and 
History." The library was specially bound and prepared lor 
presentation by the Brandon Printing Company of Nashville, 
Term., printers for the State, and from every standpoint the 
work Was most excellently done. 

The presentation took place in Pascagoula, on account of 
the rough sea preventing a passage to the battleship. 

Presentation Speech. 

Dr. Jones was invited by the Director of the Department to 
present the Library of Mississippi History to the battleship, not 
only because he thought it would be well done, but for the reason 
that he wished to honor the occasion by the selection of one 
greatly beloved by the young men and young women of Missis- 
sippi for his exemplary life and for his patience, wisdom and love 
displayed in guiding them into the paths of honor and useful- 

A report of the presentation which did not include Dr. Jones' 
speech would be deprived of its chief claim to attention. On 
account of its sincerity, simplicity and earnest eloquence it is 
made a part of this report and will appear in its printed form. 

Speech of Dr. R. \V. Jones made in presenting a Library of Mississippi 
History to the U. S. S. Mississippi. 

"Governor Noel, Lieutenant-Commander McCormick, Ladies and Gen- 
tlemen: — 1 am here to perform the simple and pleasant duty of repre- 
senting the Mississippi Department of Archives and History in these 


'presentation exercises.' I would that I were imbued with the powers 
of one of our great orators, like Prentiss, Lamar or Galloway, that I 
might do fitting honor to my State, of which I am proud, and that I 
might fill you officers and men of this great battleship with a true idea 
of the real greatness of this State and her people, for whom this noble 
vessel is named. 

"It was no meaningless compliment when to this good ship was given 
the name of 'Mississippi.' Some of the brightest pages of American history 
have been written by her people. While but an infant colony, struggling 
with wild beasts and savages for the preservation of her domestic life, 
they stood with Jackson at New Orleans; and in that second great war 
of independence, the armies trained to contend against the victorious 
legions of Napoleon went down in defeat before the heroism and courage 
of the brave Mississippi Dragoons under the command of the intrepid 

In the Mexican Wa.r nunc vi the forces which won for this Republic 
the vast territory of Texas and pushed our confines to the Pacific, were 
more effective than the volunteers of Mississippi; and wmen that war is 
discussed upon the lips of men or written upon the pages of history, it is 
upon Mississippi troops that the fairest honors must be bestowed. 

"During the great Civil War, though once sectional, yet now the crown- 
ing heritage of glory of this entire and united country, the Mississippian 
was upon the forefront of every battlefield from Manassas to Vicksburg, 
in many a glorious charge to victory or to death; and when loving hands 
place the stones of memory upon the last resting place of Lee's immortal 
hosts, the little white markers show that the Mississippians were among 
those who died for their cause. Battine, the great English military critic 
and historian, delights to dwell upon the invincible courage of the soldiers 
of Mississippi, who, at Gettysburg, swept to the very crest of Cemetery 
Ridge and died amid the enemy's guns. At the battles of Fredericksburg, 
Spottsylvania and Petersburg, as an officer of Mahon's command, I 
observed the conduct of Barksdale's and Harris' brigades, and I am sure 
that for cool courage and eilectiveness they were not surpassed by Caesar's 
Tenth Legion or Napoleon's Old Guard. 

"Such, in part, is Mississippi's history on the field of battle, and from 
a personal knowledge of this history, and from more than thirty years' 
residence among her people, I want to say that whenever called upon to 
discharge their duty, they never falter nor waver. 

"Officers of the 'Mississippi,' right well have you chosen your place of 
anchorage to-day. The waters which bear this gallant vessel break upon 
the shores of a land teeming with memoirs of great deeds and overflowing 
with inspiring traditions. It was here that Spain, France and England 
contested for the mastery of the Mississippi Valley. Just to the west of 
us, at the entrance of the Back Bay of Biloxi, the French, under the gallant 
sailor r soldier, d'Iberville, made the first settlement of Louisiana; and 
from that day to this the Gulf of Mexico has been to America what the 
Mediterranean has been to Europe, a great land-locked ocean upon whose 


bosom, in the past, the nations of the earth have contended for supre- 

"But while these shores are rich in historical associations, yet the 
economic development of the country has just begun. In the next few 
years the Panama Canal, that dream of the centuries, will open up a new 
gateway to the Pacific and to the Orient; the commerce of the world will 
pass this way, and the glories of Venice, Alexandria, Naples, Genoa and 
Barcelona will be repeated on these shores in the trade and commerce of 
Pascagoula, Gulfport, Biloxi, Mobile, New Orleans, Tampa, Pensacola 
•and Galveston; and here will commerce whiten the seas with her sails, 
but in this favored clime a second renaissance will come and the glories 
of ancient Greece and old Italy will appear in art and literature. 

"Standing in sight of the Plymouth navy yard a few days ago, I was 
filled with pride when I read the telegraphic message to your commander, 
Captain Fremont, saying: 'The navy has no sectional prejudice; its 
patriotism knows no bounds save those of the great country.' Such a 
sentiment thrills every patriotic heart and establishes a feeling of confi- 
dence that this great battleship, officered and manned as it is will always 
bear aloft the flag of our country with courage and patriotic devotion 
and add new lustre to the name of Mississippi. The oneness of name 
should give us a mutual interest in each other. We want you to know 
better the history of the State whose name you bear, and we want you 
to know the people who are now making and in the past have made 
that name. In the language of L. Q. C. Lamar in the Senate of the 
United States, 'If we knew each other better, we would love each other 

"Our great country is made by the union and co-operation of States, 
as the ocean consists of a multitude of waves, 'quant mare conjuncti, quam 
ftuctus diver si.' 

"Therefore we wish to present to you the record of that historical 
treasure, so that you may know and learn your name's greatness, and like 
us, be filled with pride that your noble and grand vessel, which represents 
this great nation on the seas, bears the name of this one of the States 
composing this glorious union. 

"In 1902 the Legislature of Mississippi, under the Alabama plan of 
Dr. Thomas M. Owen, and under the initiative of Dr. Franklin L. Riley, 
Secretary of the Mississippi Historical Society, organized the Mississippi 
Department of Archives and History. 

"Dr. Dunbar Rowland was chosen as the Director. I would be delighted 
beyond expression if I had time to tell you of his work during the past 
seven years, of his Official and Statistical Registers, aiding the work of 
other State officials and praised by the workers in history in the most 
enlightened and enterprising commonwealths of this nation, lifting up 
the reputation of our State from the charges of backwardness to one of 
super-forwardness; of his researches into the sources of our history in 
London, Paris and Seville: also of the magnificent Hall of Fame, bearing 
the portraits of distinguished Mississippians as Governor Claiborne, 


Jefferson Davis, Justice Lamar, Senators George and Walthall, John M. 
Stone, Robert Lowry, Gen. Stephen D. Lee and a host of others. 

"To the battleship 'Mississippi' and for preservation in her library I, 
therefore, with pleasure, on behalf of the Department of Archives and 
History, present these volumes of Mississippi history: 'Mississippi as a 
Province, Territory and State,' J. F. H. Claiborne; 'Enclyclopcdia of 
Mississippi History,' 2 vols., Dunbar Rowland; 'Mississippi Official and 
Statistical Register, 1904,' 'Mississippi Official and Statistical Register, 
1908,' 'Mississippi Territorial Archives,' Vol. I, Dunbar Rowland." 

Distribution of Publications. 

The judicious distribution of the Department's annual reports, 
registers and archive publications has been the means of letting 
other people know what we are doing in the historical field. 
While we have not exactly set our light upon a hill we have not 
placed it under a bushel by any menas. To be more definite, 
the publications of the Department have been distributed very 
freely in the State through the members of the Legislature. 
Fifteen hundred copies of the Register for 190S have been dis- 
tributed in the State to individuals, and one hundred to high 
school libraries; two hundred and fifty copies have been sent 
to libraries, historical societies and former Mississippians out- 
side the State. The libraries on the mailing lists of the Depart- 
ment receive the publications as they are issued and full sets 
may be found on their shelves. I attribute much of the reputa- 
tion which the Department has acquired abroad to the liberal 
policy exercised in the distribution of its publications. While 
I have been urged, as a means of revenue, to sell publications 
out of the State, I have never thought it wise to do so. 

Use of Department Collectioiis. 

The liberal distribution of publications descriptive of the 
Department's collections has led historians to come to Jackson 
in search of materials in many fields of research, and these inves- 
tigators are increasing from year to year. A distinguished 
German professor and historian, who made some studies in the 
Department during the summer, in connection with his history 
of the Mississippi Valley, was kind enough to say that he found 
more satisfaction in the use of our French transcripts than he 
did in the study of the originals in Paris. 


During the past year we have had historians from Germany 
and Sweden to use our collections, and American historians from 
Massachusetts, Louisiana and the City of Washington have been 
with us for the same purpose. 

We shall continue to allow the utmost freedom in the use of 
our collections. 

Help to Confederate Veterans. 

The Department has many applications from Confederate 
veterans for proof of military service for use in securing pensions, 
and very many old soldiers have been furnished with the neces- 
sary evidence during the past year. This service has been ex- 
tended, not only to veterans living, in Mississippi, but to those 
living in other States who enlisted in this State. Certificates of 
military sen-ice in the Confederate army have been sent to 
Mississippians now living in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Ala- 
bama, Louisiana and Florida during the current year. 

Needs of the Department. 

The historical work of the State has reached a period in its 
development when increased appropriations, equipment and 
help are necessary to its continued development. The necessity 
for more room and additional display cases has been referred to. 

The most interesting section of the Historical Department is 
its large collection of historical manuscripts filed in the Hall of 
History, and it should be open to visitors during orrice hours. 
It has never been possible to keep the hall open for the reason 
that there has been no one to place in charge of it; on account of 
its detached position a custodian is necessary. The Hall of 
History should have a curator in charge, and the Legislature 
will be asked to make an appropriation for such a position. 

In order to properly preserve the classified archives they 
should be bound in volumes; and the accumulated newspaper 
files should be treated in the same way. We have five hundred 
volumes ready for the binder. 

To meet these urgent demands the Legislature will be asked 
for an annual maintenance appropriation of $7,500.00. This 
is small indeed when we think of such new States as Wisconsin, 


Minnesota and Kansas each appropriating $25,000.00 a year for 
the support of historical work. 

Election of Vice-President and Trustees. 

The terms of three members of the Board of Trustees expire 
every two years, and it becomes the duty of the Board to select 
their successors, subject to conhrmation by the Senate. At this 
meeting it will be necessary for you to send four names to the 
January session of the Senate, two of whom will serve as suc- 
cessors to Bishop Charles B. Galloway and Gen. Stephen D. Lee, 
the others being successors to Judge Edward Mayes and Dr. 
Franklin L. Riley. The death of Bishop Galloway caused a 
vacancy in the position of Vice-President of the Board, and that 
office is to be filled also. 


It may be gathered from the foregoing that we are making 
progress on the upward way; while we have encountered diffi- 
culties and had our troubles, we still have cause to be grateful 
for the measure of success achieved. To you, gentlemen, am I 
indebted for much active aid and encouragement. 
Very respectfully submitted, 

Dunbar Rowland, 




Itemized Statement of Disbursements, Department of 
Archives and History. 

Salary of Director, Dunbar Rowland, for 190S $ 600 00 

Salary of Director, Dunbar Rowland, for 1909 • 1.200 00 

Salary of Assistant, Mrs. Dunbar Rowland, for 1908 266 72 

Salary of Assistant, Mrs. Dunbar Rowland, for 1909 533 22 

Maintenance Fund, for 190S 429 39 

Maintenance Fund, for 1909 2,4S6 52 

Traveling Expenses, for 1908 195 00 

Traveling Expenses, for 1909 425 37 

Total Disbursements, Chapter 33, Laws of 1908 $6,136 22 


Agricultural and Mechanical College, 7. 

Alabama Department of Archives and 
History, S, 15. 

Alexandria, 18. 

America and West Indies, tabulation of 
papers relating to, 9-10. 

American historians, re Department of 
Archives and History, 20. 

American Historical Association, Rich- 
mond meeting of, 8-9. 

Apartments, 14. 

Appropriation maintenance, need of, 21. 

Archive Classification. 12. 

Archives, English, 9. 

Archives, French, calendar of, 8. 

Archives, need of binding of, 20. 

Arkansas, historical interest in, 15. 

Army of Tennessee, 7. 

Auditor's report, 22. 

Back Bay of Biloxi, 17. 

Barksdale's brigade, 17. 

Battine, 17. 

Berryville, 12. 

Biloxi, 18. 

Board of Trade. West Florida, 10. 

Board of Trustees, resolution of re 
hours for public business, 6; resolu- 
tion of re death of Gen. S. D. Lee, 7. 

Brandon Printing Company, 16. 

Browne, Lieut. -Gov., re letters of to 
Secretarv of State, 9. 

Brunson, Prof. G. H., 3, G. 

Ca?sar's Tenth Legion, 17. 

Calendar, of French Archives, 8, 9. 

Capitol, erection of, 14. 

Carnegie Institution, Dept. of History, 
research of. 1 1 . 

Cemetery Ridge. 17. 

Chester, Gov., re letters of to Secretary 
of State. 9-10. 

Chicago Historical Society, S. 

Civil War. 17. 

Claiborne, Gov., re portrait of, 18. 

Claiborne, j. F. H., 19. 

Coeur do Lion, 6. 

Conclusion, 21 . 

Confederate Memorial Hall, 15. 

Confederate veterans, re military his- 
tory of Mississippi, 11; re help to, 20. 

Conference of Historical Departments, 8. 

Custodian, need of, 20. 

Davis, Jefferson, 5; re writings and 

speeches of, 15-16; re portrait of, 19. 
Davis, Mrs. J e iter son, 15. 
Department of Archives and History. 

establishment of, 13; re inadequacy 

of apartments of, 14; reputation of, 

Department of Historical Research of 

the Carnegie Institution, 11. 
Director, see Dr. Dunbar Rowland. 
Distribution of Publications, 19. 
Durnford, Lieut. -Gov., re letters of to 

Secretary of State, 9. 
Election of Vice-President and Trustees, 

Eliot, Gov., re letters of to Secretarv of 

State, 9. 
"Encyclopedia of Mississippi History," 

16, 19. 
English Transcripts. 9-10. 
Farmer, Major, re military papers of, 9. 
Fredericksburg, 17. 
Fremont, Capt., IS. 
French archives, calendar of, S. 9; re 

Mississippi, 10. 
French Ministry of the Colonies, 10. 
French Transcripts, 10, 19. 
Galahad, 6. 
Galloway, Bishop Charles B., death of, 

3-6; characteristics of, 4; ability of, 

5, 17, 21. 
Galveston, IS. 
Genoa, IS. 
George, Gen. J. Z., 5, 7; re portrait of, 

Georgia, re historical interest in. 15. 
German historian, re Department of 

Archives and History, 19. 
Gettysburg, 17. 
Gulfport, IS. 
Hall of Fame, 13. 14. IS. 
Hall of History. 14, '2'). 
Harris' brigade, 17. 
Help to Confederate Veterans. 20. 
Historical Department idea, interest in, 

Holmes, Gov. David, re portrait of, 12- 

Horn Island Harbor, 15. 
Howard Memorial Librarv. 8. 

10 (23) 


Iberville, d\ 17. 

Illinois Historical Library, 8, 15. 

Indiana Historical Society, 8, 15. 

Industrial education, 7. 

Interest in the Historical Department 
idea, 15. 

Iowa Historical Society, 8. 

Jackson, 19. 

Jackson, Gen., 17. 

Johnstone, Gov., re letters of to Secre- 
tary of State, 9. 

Lowry, Robert, re portrait of, 19. 

Mahon's command, 17. 

Maine, historical interest in, 15. 

Manassas, 17. 

Massachusetts historians, re Department 
of Archives and History, 20. 

Mayes, Dr. Edward, 3, 6, 7, 21. 

Mexican War, 17. 

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Soci- 
ety, S. 

Military History of Mississippi, 11. 

Minnesota, historical interest in, 15. 

Minutes, Board of Trustees, 6-7. 

Mississippiana, 14. 

"Mississippi as a Province, Territory 
and State," 16, 19. 

Mississippi Department of Archives and 
History, establishment of, 13, IS; re 
presentation of library to U. S. S. 
Mississippi, 15. 

Mississippi Dragoons, 17. 

Mississippi history, re library of, 14; re 
presentation of library to U. S. S. 
Mississippi, 15. 

Mississippi, military history, 11. 

"Mississippi Official and Statistical Reg- 
ister, 1904," 16, 19. 

"Mississippi Official and Statistical Reg- 
ister, 1908," 16, 19. 

Mississippi Provincial Archives, English 
Dominion, 10. 

Mississippi Provincial Archives, Spanish 
Dominion, 11. 

"Mississippi Territorial Archives," 16, 

Mississippi Territorial Legislature, 12. 

Mississippi U. S. S., re presentation of 
library to, 15. 

Mississippi Valley, re documents re 
States of, 8, 9, 10; interest in preser- 
vation of history of. 15; re Spain, 
France and England, 17. 

Mississippi valor, 17. 

Missouri Historical Society, 8. 

Mobile, IS. 
Montgomery, W. B., 7. 

Museum, 13. 

McGuire, Burwell, 12. 

McGuire, Mrs. Elizabeth Holmes , 12. 

McGuire, Miss Minnie, 12. 

Naples, 18. 

Napoleon, 17. 

Napoleon's Old Guard. 17. 

Nebraska, historical interest in, 15. 

Needs of the Department, 20. 

New Orleans. 15, 17. 18. 

New York, historical interest in, 15. 

Noel, Gov., 16. 

North Carolina, historical interest in, 15. 

Official and Statistical Register, 11. 

Ohio Vallev Historical Association, 15. 

Old Capitol, 14. 

Owen, Dr. Thomas M., 18. 

Panama Canal, IS. 

Paris, 10. 

Pascagoula, 15, 18. 

Paul, Saint, 6. 

Pensacola, IS. 

Petersburg, 18. 

Portraits — of Gov. David Holmes, 12- 

13; of Gov. A. H. Longino, 13; of 

distinguished Mississippians, 1S-19. 
Prentiss, 17. 
Presentation of Publications to U. S. S. 

Mississippi, 15-16. 
Presentation speech, 16-19. 
Preston, J. R., 3, 6, 7. 
Resolutions of Board of Trustees, re 

hours for public business, 6; re death 

of Gen. S. D. Lee, 7. 
Richmond, S. 
Richmond Meeting American Historical 

Association, 8-9. 
Riley, Dr. Franklin L., 3, 6, IS, 21. 
Rowland, Dr. Dunbar, re annual report 

of, 6 ; Secretary Board of Trustees. 7 ; 

re addresses of to historical societies, 

15; chosen director, IS; re work of, 

Saint Paul, 6. 
Savonarola, 6. 
Seventh Annual Meeting, minutes of, 

Spanish Transcripts, 11. 
Spottsylvania, 17. 
Stone, John M., re portrait of, 19. 
Stuart, Gilbert. 13. 
Swedish historians, re Department of 

Archives and History, 20. 
Tampa, 18. 

Tennessee, historical interest in, 15. 
Texas, 17. 
Thompson, Judge R. H., 3, 7. 


Transcripts— English, 9-10; French, 10; 

Spanish, 11. 
Trustees, see Board of Trustees. 
Use of Department Collections, 19-20. 
Venice, IS. 
Vicksburg,. 17. 

Virginia, historical interest in, 15. 
Walthall, Senator, 5; re portrait of , 19. 
Washington, 8. 

Washington historians, re Department 
of Archives and History, 20. 

West Virginia, historical interest in, 15. 

White, Prof. J. 51., 3, 6. 

Willimas, 5. 

Winchester, 12. 

Wisconsin Historical Societv, 8, 15. 

Woldnook, 12. 

Writings and Speeches of Jefferson 
Davis, 15. 


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